# 5.1.3.4 Tools

Tools and mathematics help scientists and engineers see more, measure more accurately, and do things that they could not otherwise accomplish.

Use appropriate tools and techniques in gathering, analyzing and interpreting data.

*For example:* Spring scale, metric measurements, tables, mean/median/range, spreadsheets, and appropriate graphs.

Create and analyze different kinds of maps of the student's community and of Minnesota.

*For example:* Weather maps, city maps, aerial photos, regional maps or online map resources.

## Overview

**MN Standard in Lay terms:**

Tools and mathematice help people to see and do things they could not otherwise do.

**Big Idea:**

Students will come to the understanding that science is not a stand alone subject or tool. Incorporating a variety of scientific and mathematical tools including, metric measurement, the use of collected mathematical data and graphs, not only enriches science activities but enhances it so that scientists and students are able to analyze results in a number of different ways and formats. The use of geographic mapping tools and resources also serves to give scientists additional opportunities to look at outcomes in a variety of situations.

**MN Standard Benchmarks**:

5.1.3.4.1** **- Use appropriate tools and techniques in gathering, analyzing and interpreting data.

*For example:* Spring scale, metric measurements, tables, mean/median/range, spreadsheets, and appropriate graphs.

5.1.3.4.2 - Create and analyze different kinds of maps of the student's community and of Minnesota.

*For example:* Weather maps, city maps, aerial photos, regional maps or online map resources.

**THE ESSENTIALS:**

*Science** **Content** **Standard** **Program** **Standard** **C** *

*The sc*ience program should be coordinated with the mathematics program to enhance student use and understanding of mathematics in the study of science and to improve student understanding of mathematics.

Nature of Mathematics > Nature of Mathematics

Benchmarks of Science Literacy

9. The mathematical world

a. Number

By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that

Specifying a quantity requires both a number and a unit. 9A/E3*

Measurements are always likely to give slightly different numbers, even if what is being measured stays the same. 9A/E4

It is possible (and often useful) to estimate quantities without determining them exactly. 9A/E7** (BSL)

By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that

Tables and graphs can show how values of one quantity are related to values of another. 9B/E2

c. Shapes

By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that:

Length can be thought of as unit lengths joined together, area as a collection of unit squares, and volume as a set of unit cubes. 9C/E1

Graphical display of quantities may make it possible to spot patterns that are not otherwise obvious, such as cycles and trends. 9C/E3*

Objects can be described in terms of their shape or the shapes of their parts. 9C/E4*

Scale drawings show shapes and compare locations of things very different in size. 9C/E6

Two lines can be parallel, perpendicular, or slanted with respect to one another. 9C/E8** (BSL)

The interaction should become more frequent and more sophisticated as students progress through the upper elementary and middle grades. Graphing, making tables, and making scale drawings should become commonplace in student inquiry and design projects, as should the use of geometric and mathematical concepts such as perpendicular, perimeter, volume, powers, roots, and negative numbers. Problems that are used to challenge students may take the form of contests and games, but at least some of the problems should stem directly from the science and technology being studied."

**Common Core Standards** (i.e. connections with Math, Social Studies or Language Arts Standards):

2010 Minnesota Academic Standards

Language Arts

Comprehension and Collaboration

5.8.2.2 Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

5.8.4.4 Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; avoid plagiarism by identifying sources; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

5.8.5.5 Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

5.10.4.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on *grade 5 reading and content*, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

a. Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

Mathematics

6.3.3.1- Solve problems in various contexts involving conversion of weights, capacities, geometric measurements and times within measurement systems using appropriate units.

6.3.3.2- Estimate weights, capacities and geometric measurements using benchmarks in measurement systems with appropriate units.

## Misconceptions

Measurement is only linear.

Any quantity can be measured as accurately as you want.

The metric system is more accurate than the other measurement systems.

The English system is easier to use than the metric system.

Mass and weight are the same.

Some objects cannot be measured because of their size or inaccessibility.

Hapkiewicz, A. (1992). Finding a List of Science Misconceptions. MSTA Newsletter, 38(Winter'92), pp.11-14

When scientists analyze a problem, they must use either inductive or deductive reasoning.

The process of science is purely analytic and does not involve creativity.

There is a single Scientific Method that all scientists follow.

Understanding Science; How Science Really Works

Maps only show how to get somewhere and where something is located.

## Vignette

Mr. C. informed his students they would be creating a model and a map of the school yard. Realizing that there is a difference between a model and a map, Mr. C. wanted the students to discover if a map or a model would be better? He asked the students to come up with possible questions. Some of the questions asked were;

What is the difference between a model and a map?

Why would you need a map if you have a model?

Why would you need a model if you have a map?

What can a map show you that a model can not and vise verse.

What is a model?

How do you create a model of a schoolyard?

Would you need a map scale? a model scale?

After the myriad of questions, Mr. C. told the students they were going on a field trip to find out how they could answer some of their questions. A field trip to their own school's front and backyard. Mr. C. outfitted pairs of students with a clip board, pencil and graph paper. He then told them to sketch a map of the details of the school yard. Right away some inquisitive students asked a lot of questions about how to go about this exercises. Mr. C. indicated that he had already given out the instructions. Identify the details on the school yard needed to make a map of the school yard.

So, the students took off and began to create a map. Mr. C.'s intention was to have the students create a map based on prior knowledge. At this point there was no right or wrong, students were just gathering the details needed to make a map of the school yard. After 30 or 40 minutes of the students roaming around the school yard, Mr. C. corralled them to share some of their observations and details. Mr. C asked, "What kind of items do you want to place in your map?" Ideas included the school building, parking lot, trees, playground, baseball field, hills, etc.

The students proceeded back to the classroom where Mr. C. gave them another sheet of graph paper. The instruction this time was for the students to take their details they gathered and create a map. Mr. C. asked the student groups to come up with a list of items, vocabulary and symbols associated with a map. Students eventually narrowed it down to the essential items needed to included on a map. Mr. C. informed them that on the following day they would put this plan into action an create their map.

The next day students were eager to create their map. Upon completion of the school yard maps, Mr. C. asked pairs to share their maps and to explain the feature associated with their map. Students used a document camera to project their map. After presenting each map students were able to ask questions of each other. Mr. C. asked if the students were able to find some items on other maps that they would like to include on their map. At this point Mr. C. had the students write down in their science notebooks the terms, tools and symbols needed for the map. Students were given some time to locate and define unfamiliar words before the next task, which was to recreate their map with some of the newly learned tools and symbols.

Mr. C. along with the students were quite pleased with the results for their final copy of the map. At this point Mr. C. asked the students if their was something that their map could not show. Eventually they came up with items like hills, the height of the school, and other items that could not be adequately represented with only two dimensions. Mr. C. then asked the students to come up with some questions that might be able to address the items that they were unable to represent on the map. Questions ranged from, "What could we do to show the height of something?" to, "What tools would we need to represent 3 dimensions?" and "Are we able to show hills on a map?" These questions led to the next part of this activity in which the students would create a "model" of the the school yard.

Each student was given a tray, sand, millimeter cubes, craft sticks and a variety of other materials to use to create their model. As the students set out to create their model, Mr. C. needed to often remind some students that they were not trying to recreate a swing set, but to use materials to represent the swing set. The end results were a variety of models all attempting to show the same schoolyard. Each model in themselves had value. At this point Mr. C asked the students to compare the their model to their map and to discuss the similarities, differences, advantages and disadvantages.

To wrap up this activity Mr. C. projected a Google satellite view of the actual school yard and again had the students make comparisons. As an assessment Mr. C. posed this problem for the students:

Robert and a group from his Boy Scout troop were studying a local park to find out the best place to put the new playground. They needed to present their plan to the city council. They hoped that the council would approve their plan. He and his friends couldn't decide whether making a model of the playground or drawing a map would be the best way to present their ideas.

What do you think Robert and his friends should do? Write your ideas about whether to include a map, a model, or both in their presentation.

## Resources

**Selected activities**

Science NetLinks: What Can Data Tell us? 5.1.3.4.1

To look at the questions that can be posed and answered by examining data distribution. To look for circumstances that might bias the results of a study. In this investigation, students will analyze data collected by themselves and other students. Students will create data distributions in order to determine the highest, lowest, and middle values, as well as pile ups and gaps, for a particular set of data. Students also will be introduced to the notion of sample size and how it can affect results. Finally, students will begin to explore the questions that can be answered based on a set of data, and the additional questions it might prompt one to ask.

Science NetLinks: Cylinders and Scale: 5.1.3.4.1

This lesson is designed to build upon students' ability to build structures and to learn about mathematical and engineering relationships like length, area, and volume. Students will find that they can measure very large or very small objects if they understand and implement certain principles.

metric unit includes labs on length, mass, volume, density, and temperature as well as conversions (metric to metric and metric to English). Students have many opportunities to use rulers, triple-beam balances, and other science equipment to learn how to use the metric system of measurements.

Students will use materials and space provided to design a floor map of the State of Minnesota. Students will creatively learn about the Physical geography of Minnesota and develop spatial and relative location of Minnesota landmarks and physical characteristics. Students will understand alternative ways of showing proportions and projections of physical characteristics.

The FOSS activities listed below address Benchmark 5.1.3.4.1

Investigation 1, Parts1-3, pp. 8-27

Students experiment with variables that do and do not affect the behavior of pendulums. They graph their results and use their graphs to predict the behavior of additional pendulums.

5.1.3.4.1, 5.2.2.1.3

Investigation 1, Parts 2-3, pp.18-28

Students are introduced to levers as devices that help lift weight or overcome resistance. Students investigate the fulcrum, effort, and load of one kind of lever (class-1) and conduct experiments with a spring scale to discover the relationships between the parts of lever systems. *They draw and graph their results.*

Investigation 1-School Yard Models

Working in pairs, students create models of their school site, using a sand mixture and plastic cubes. They transfer the model to a plastic grid and draw a map on paper from the overlay. They observe and compare features on the models and corresponding maps.

Benchmark 5.1.3.4.2

Investigation 4-Build a Mountain

Students are introduced to the study of topography by building a model of a landform-a mountain. They use the foam model of Mt. Shasta to create a topographic map, and the map to produce a profile of the mountain. Benchmark5.1.3.4.2

Investigation 5-Bird's-Eye View

Students learn to read USGS topographic maps and compare them to aerial photographs. They study Death Valley, Mt. Shasta, and Grand Canyon maps and photographs, and make landform maps from the aerial photographs.

**Additional resources or links:**

BrainPop

Movies that address Benchmark 5.1.3.4.1

BrainPOP Microscopes

BrainPOP Scientific Method

BrainPOP CD

BrainPOP Graphing

Movies that address Benchmark 5.1.3.4.2

A note about BrainPOP

BrainPOP creates animated, curriculum-based content that engages students, supports educators, and bolsters achievement.

To start exploring BrainPOP Jr., BrainPOP, BrainPOP Español, and BrainPOP ESL, register for our Free Trial.

Read the scientifically based research that demonstrates BrainPOP's impact and effectiveness.

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Books suggested by FOSS

*Over the Mountains: An Aerial View of Geology*

Author: Michael Collier - Illustrated by: ---

Level: 5-8 - Publisher: Mikaya Press, Inc. - Year: 2007 - ISBN: 9781931414180

Description: Some of you might remember the amazing aerial photographs in the book entitled Geology Illustrated authored by John S. Shelton over 30 years ago. This new book begins with a foreward by Shelton who reflects on the efforts he made to produce his book and the richness and beauty of the photos contained in Collier's book. The book includes fabulous aerial photographs of real-world landscapes, such as the San Andreas Fault, the Grand Tetons, Capitol Reef, Shenandoah, and many more. The photos illustrate Earth processes such as erosion, deposition, and mountain-building, and provide wonderful opportunities for students to observe and inquire about the various landforms. They can compare the features they observe on Earth to images from the Moon and Mars and consider the similarities and differences between planetary surfaces.

Modules: Landforms, Earth History, Planetary Science, Solid Earth, Water Planet

**Vocabulary/Glossary:**

*dependent variable*- a factor that changes depending on something else; in an experiment it is what we measure and observe to see if its variation is related to changes in the independent variable; the factor plotted on y-axis- graphing model - relates two different sets of variables on a graph to look for a correlation between them; the purpose of using such a model is to determine if the change in y depends on the change in x
- independent variable - a factor in an experiment that is changed purposefully to investigate whether it causes another variable to change; the factor plotted on x-axis
- mean -the average value of a data set that is calculated by summing up the values and dividing by the total number of samples
- median -the middle number of an ordered set of data
- mode -the value in data set that appears most frequently
- range the spread of the data; calculated by finding the difference between the highest and lowest values in a data set
- rate of change -the ratio of change in y to change in x (ignoring units); slope of line on x/y graph.
- scatter plot -a type of graphing model that relates data from two different sets as a collection of points
- span -the high and low values in a data set
- Metric Units Vocabualry
- centimeter:
*metric unit of measure that is 1/100th of a meter* - cubic centimeter:
*centimeter x centimeter x centimeter* - customary measurement:
*units most Americans use - inch, foot, yard, mile, cup* - equivalents for length in metrics:
*10 mm = 1 cm* - graduated cylinder:
*a glass or plastic instrument used to measure the volume of liquids* - gram:
*basic unit of mass in the metric system* - kilogram:
*a unit of mass in the metric system that equals 1,000 grams* - kilometer:
*a metric unit of measure that is equal to 1,000 meters* - liter:
*the basic unit of volume in the metric system* - mass:
*how much matter there is in an object* - meter:
*the basic unit of length in the metric system* - milligram:
*a unit of mass in the metric system that is 1/1000th of a gram* - milliliter:
*a metric unit of measure that is 1/1000th of a liter* - millimeter:
*a metric unit of measurement used to measure the width of a pencil* - Science Tools Vocabulary:
- Meter Sticks or Rulers- used to measure the length of object.
- Balance scales- used to measure and compare mass or matter; pan balance and triple beam.
- Thermometer- used to measure the temperature of matter
- Graduated Cylinder or Beakers- used to measure liquids and find volume.
- Spring Scale- used to measure the pull of gravity on an object; unit of measurement is Newton
- Radiometer- used to demonstrate amount of light energy.
- Mapping Skills Vocabulary
- contour interval:
*The difference in elevation from one contour line to the next.* - contour line:
*A line on a topographic map that connects points of equal elevation.* - degree:
*A unit used to measure distances around a circle. One degree equals 1/360 of a full circle.* - elevation:
*Height above sea level* - equator:
*An imaginary line that circles Earth halfway between the North and South poles.* - Global positioning system:
*A method of finding latitude and longitude using satellites.* - hemisphere:
*One half of the sphere that makes up Earth's surface.* - hydrosphere:
*Earth's oceans, rivers, lakes, and ice.* - key:
*A list of the symbols used on a map.* - landform:
*A feature of topography formed by the processes that shape Earth's surface.* - latitude:
*The distance in degrees north or south of the equator.* - longitude:
*The distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian.* - map:
*A model of all or part of Earth's surface as seen from above.* - mountain:
*A landform with high elevation and high relief* - mountain range:
*A series of mountains that have the same general shape and structure.* - plain:
*A landform made up of flat or gently rolling land with low relief* - plateau:
*A landform that has high elevation and a more or less level surface.* - prime meridian:
*The line that makes a half circle from the North Pole to the South Pole and that passes through Greenwich, England.* - relief:
*The difference in elevation between the highest and lowest parts of an area.* - satellite image:
*Pictures of land surface based on computer data collected from satellites.* - scale:
*Used to compare distance on a map or globe to distance on Earth's surface.* - symbols:
*On a map, pictures used by mapmakers to stand for features on Earth's surface.* - topographic map:
*A map that shows the surface features of an area.* - topography:
*The shape of the land determined by elevation, relief, and landforms.*

Color Landform Atlas of the United States (student and teacher resource)

This site includes a number of downloadable maps and satellite images for each state.

Digitally-shaded Relief Map of the United States (student and teacher resource)

This map of the lower 48 states of the U.S. is a digitally enhanced, shaded relief map showing many of the significant landforms and physiographic provinces. You can download more information and a digitized version from this site. There is also a link to a map which includes geologic information.

FOSS Modules: Landforms

EROS Data Center (student and teacher resource)

Information about maps and aerial photographs of the U.S. that are available for purchase.

EarthExplorer (student and teacher resource)

Search for digitized aerial photographs for your area, using either a map, key word, or with latitude and longitude

Download free software that allows you to view satellite images covering the entire globe. You can fly through landscapes, and you can even tilt the Earth's surface so you can see mountains, and even Grand Canyon, in profile.

Kite Aerial Photography (teacher resource)

Charles C. Benton of Berkeley, California, has refined the craft of taking aerial photographs from a kite. Learn more about how he does this and see the results at this Web page.

The National Map Viewer (teacher resource)

This site provides access the National Map directly to add layers, view digital elevation models, and more. A fast Internet connection is required.

Schoolyard Geology: U.S. Geological Survey (student and teacher resource)

Use resources from the U.S. Geological Survey to create a map of your schoolyard using aerial photographs and try other geology-related activities.

U.S. Geological Survey (student and teacher resource)

This is the site for the U.S. Geological Survey, a part of Department of Interior. It includes links to the various functions, activities and products of the Survey,

U.S. Geological Survey/Geography (student and teacher resource)

From here you can learn more about USGS aerial photographs and satellite imagery, as well as locate resources for ordering publications and photographs.

USGS Publications Online (teacher resource)

Provides access to a variety of electronic documents from the U.S. Geological Survey. Includes the Geologic Time and Fossils, Rocks, and Time brochures.

USGS Topographic Maps (teacher resource)

The USGS sells nearly 70,000 topographic map titles.

FOSS suggested connections

Social Studies Extensions

Read other maps.

Collect topographic maps from other places.

Create a permanent model.

Find school-site plans.

Plan the perfect school.

Language Extension

Write for more maps.

Home/School Connection:

Students identify landforms on a local highway map and plan a trip to a landform.

Students draw a map of all or part of their home and mark fire-escape routes.

**Math**

*SciMathMN Minnesota K-12 Science Framework*

Patterns and Relationships

By the end of 5th grade, students should know that:

Mathematics is the study of many kinds of patterns, including numbers and shapes and operations on them.

Mathematical ideas can be represented concretely, graphically, and symbolically.

Mathematical Inquiry

By the end of 5th grade, students should know that:

Numbers and shapes and operations on them help to describe and predict things about the world around us.

In using mathematics, choices have to be made about what operations will give the best results.

## Assessment

**Students: **

PALS: Grade 5-8 Measurement Performance Task

Students estimate the mass, volume, length and area of various objects. The task assesses students' abilities to make simple observations and estimations.

PALS is an on-line, standards-based, continually updated resource bank of science performance assessment tasks indexed via the National Science Education Standards (NSES) and various other standards frameworks. The tasks, collected from numerous sources, include student directions and response forms, administration procedures, scoring rubrics, examples of student work, and technical quality data calculated from field testing.

**Teachers:** What measurement tools would be used to analyze and graph the results of an experiment?

What questions should students ask and answer to show their knowledge and application of this standard?

How would students use a map and its tools to solve real world problems?

**Administrators:**

Administrators would expect to see students using measurement tools from a variety of experiments and activities. They will observe them using these tools to gather data and in turn applying that data to graphs and spreadsheets.

In another setting an administrator would see students engaged in mapping activities and applying vocabulary and measurement tools to make judgments about a certain map or activity.

## Differentiation

**Struggling and At-Risk:**

Teaching Budding Scientists: Fostering Scientific Inquiry with Diverse Learners in Grades 3-5

Pamela Fraser-Abder, *New York University *

*Teaching Budding Scientists *is a call to action to teachers to guide their students on a journey to scientific literacy, while fostering their interest and participation in science. Written for educators in grades three to five, *Teaching Budding Scientists *assists teachers in developing, implementing, and reflecting on their science teaching and their students' science learning. As teachers complete the reflections in this book, they will explore inquiry-based science teaching that nurtures elementary students' natural curiosity in science; their deep-seated, often unconscious feelings toward science teaching and learning; and their views on who has ownership of science. To learn more about other books in the*Teaching Scientists *series see inside front cover.

Improving Science and Vocabulary Learning of English Language Learners

This link will bring you to a pdf that outlines some great ideas to support your ELL students.

Teaching Science to Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Elementary Students, 1/E Cox-Petersen, Melber & Patchen

*Teaching Science to Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Elementary Students* helps K-8 teachers implement culturally relevant instructional strategies to ensure that all students, regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic class, can do science, like science, and become scientists if they choose.

In America's increasingly diverse classrooms, science is not always presented in a way that is meaningful to all students. With this in mind, this book outlines 8 culturally relevant strategies for teaching scienceto help ensure all students have access to inquiry-based, interactive, and experiential science learning. Written to encourage inclusive practices, the book shows how to teach science using students' experiences, how to integrate science and literacy and how to use alternative methods to assess students' understanding of science.

RESOURCES FOR PREPARING TEACHERS OF SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS TO WORK WITH ENGLISH LEARNERS

**G/T:**

Gifted and Talented Teachers toolkit

Gifted students should use inquiry techniques to generate ideas about a topic, issue or question. Some models include using creative problem solving, inquiry processes, and/or advanced thinking skills. these processes include understanding what the student already knows about the topic, discovering the known facts about the topic, brainstorming ideas about the topic, synthesizing and evaluating information, and establishing information, and establishing conclusions.

HOTS -Hooked on Thinking works with schools, businesses and learning communities to transform student learning outcomes.

Teaching Science to Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Elementary Students, 1/E Cox-Petersen, Melber & Patchen

©2012 | Allyn & Bacon | Estimated Availability: 06/10/2011

ISBN-10: 013714623X | ISBN-13: 9780137146239

*Teaching Science to Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Elementary Students* helps K-8 teachers implement culturally relevant instructional strategies to ensure that all students, regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic class, can do science, like science, and become scientists if they choose.

In America's increasingly diverse classrooms, science is not always presented in a way that is meaningful to all students. With this in mind, this book outlines 8 culturally relevant strategies for teaching scienceto help ensure all students have access to inquiry-based, interactive, and experiential science learning. Written to encourage inclusive practices, the book shows how to teach science using students' experiences, how to integrate science and literacy and how to use alternative methods to assess students' understanding of science.

Special Education in the Science Classroom: Strategies for Success

This site will provide information for the classroom teacher on how to adapt science lessons to meet many needs of Special Education including;

Dealing with Issues Related to Attention

Dealing with Issues Related to Information Processing and Communication

Dealing with Issues Related to Organization

Dealing with Issues Related to Social Interaction

Dealing with Issues Related to Time and Making Transitions

Overcoming Obstacles to Success in the Science Classroom

Students with identified disabilities are found in science classrooms in every school in the nation. What specific techniques benefit special education students in the science classroom? Strategies designed to increase classroom success for special education students are based on sound instructional methodology, and thus have potential benefits for all students.

When integrating the strategies suggested, teachers must remember that the term "special education" is applied to students having a wide range of disabilities existing on a continuum from moderate to extreme. Instructors should consider individual needs and learning preferences when implementing strategies.

## Parents/Admin

Teaching Budding Scientists: Fostering Scientific Inquiry with Diverse Learners in Grades 3-5

Pamela Fraser-Abder, *New York University *

*Teaching Budding Scientists *is a call to action to teachers to guide their students on a journey to scientific literacy, while fostering their interest and participation in science. Written for educators in grades three to five, *Teaching Budding Scientists *assists teachers in developing, implementing, and reflecting on their science teaching and their students' science learning. As teachers complete the reflections in this book, they will explore inquiry-based science teaching that nurtures elementary students' natural curiosity in science; their deep-seated, often unconscious feelings toward science teaching and learning; and their views on who has ownership of science. To learn more about other books in the *Teaching Scientists *series see inside front cover.

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