5.1.1.1 A Way of Knowing

Grade: 
5
Subject:
Science
Strand:
Nature of Science & Engineering
Substrand:
The Practice of Science
Standard 5.1.1.1

Science is a way of knowing about the natural world, is done by individuals and groups, and is characterized by empirical criteria, logical argument and skeptical review.

Benchmark: 5.1.1.1.1 Evidence & Communication

Explain why evidence, clear communication, accurate record keeping, replication by others, and openness to scrutiny are essential parts of doing science.

Benchmark: 5.1.1.1.2 Replicating Investigations

Recognize that when scientific investigations are replicated they generally produce the same results, and when results differ significantly, it is important to investigate what may have caused such differences.

For example: Measurement errors, equipment failures, or uncontrolled variables.

Benchmark: 5.1.1.1.3 Differing Explanations

Understand that different explanations for the same observations usually lead to making more observations and trying to resolve the differences. 

Benchmark: 5.1.1.1.4 Models for Phenomena

Understand that different models can be used to represent natural phenomena and these models have limitations about what they can explain.

For example: Different kinds of maps of a region provide different information about the land surface.

Overview

Standard in Lay Terms 

MN Standard in lay terms:

In order to understand the natural world around us, we need to realize that our knowledge comes from and is created by individuals like scientists, students, researchers and groups of people like schools, universities, public and private businesses.   To help explain and understand the natural world, one must base findings on observation, experiments or personal experience (empirical criteria).  Findings in the natural world must also be sensible and based on facts and stand up to disagreements or other points of view (logical argument). Findings in the natural world must also stand up to people who might not accept the findings or show doubt (skeptical review).

Big Ideas and Essential Understandings 

Big Idea:

Scientists formulate and test their explanations of nature using observation, experiments, and theoretical and mathematical models. Although all scientific ideas are tentative and subject to change and improvement in principle, for most major ideas in science, there is much experimental and observational confirmation. Those ideas are not likely to change greatly in the future. Scientists do and have changed their ideas about nature when they encounter new experimental evidence that does not match their existing explanations.

In areas where active research is being pursued and in which there is not a great deal of experimental or observational evidence and understanding, it is normal for scientists to differ with one another about the interpretation of the evidence or theory being considered. Different scientists might publish conflicting experimental results or might draw different conclusions from the same data. Ideally, scientists acknowledge such conflict and work towards finding evidence that will resolve their disagreement.

It is part of scientific inquiry to evaluate the results of scientific investigations, experiments, observations, theoretical models, and the explanations proposed by other scientists. Evaluation includes reviewing the experimental procedures, examining the evidence, identifying faulty reasoning, pointing out statements that go beyond the evidence, and suggesting alternative explanations for the same observations. Although scientists may disagree about explanations of phenomena, about interpretations of data, or about the value of rival theories, they do agree that questioning, response to criticism, and open communication are integral to the process of science. As scientific knowledge evolves, major disagreements are eventually resolved through such interactions between scientists.

(SciMath MN"Minnesota K-12 Science Framework" 3-156)

Benchmarks of Science Literacy

As children continue to investigate the world, the consistency premise can be strengthened by putting more emphasis on explaining inconsistency. When students observe differences in the way things behave or get different results in repeated investigations, they should suspect that something differs from trial to trial and try to find out what. Sometimes the difference results from methods, sometimes from the way the world is. The point is that different findings can lead to interesting new questions to be investigated.

Benchmark Cluster 

MN Standard Benchmarks:

5.1.1.1.1 Explain why evidence, clear communication, accurate record keeping, replication by others, and openness to scrutiny are essential parts of doing science.

5.1.1.1.2 - Recognize that when scientific investigations are replicated they generally produce the same results, and when results differ significantly, it is important to investigate what may have caused such differences.

For example: Measurement errors, equipment failures, or uncontrolled variables.

5.1.1.1.3 - Understand that different explanations for the same observations usually lead to making more observations and trying to resolve the differences. 

5.1.1.1.4 - Understand that different models can be used to represent natural phenomena and these models have limitations about what they can explain.

For example: Different kinds of maps of a region provide different information about the land surface. 

THE ESSENTIALS:

A quote, cartoon or video clip link directly related to the standard.

In natural science the principles of truth ought to be confirmed by observation.

Carolus Linnaeus

Philosophia Botanica (1751), final sentence. Trans. Frans A. Stafleu, Linnaeus and the Linneans: The Spreading of their Ideas in Systematic Botany, 1735-17893

Correlations 

Content Standards: 5-8

Science as Inquiry (this is the same content standard for Mn Standard 5.1.1.1)

Content Standard A:

As a result of activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop

Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry

Understandings about scientific inquiry

The Nature of Science> Avoiding Bias in Science

Benchmarks of Science Literacy

Atlas

By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that

Science is an adventure that people everywhere can take part in, as they have for many centuries. 1C/E1

Clear communication is an essential part of doing science. It enables scientists to inform others about their work, expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and stay informed about scientific discoveries around the world. 1C/E2

Doing science involves many different kinds of work and engages men and women of all ages and backgrounds. 1C/E3

Many social practices and products of technology are shaped by scientific knowledge. 1C/E4**

Common Core Standards (i.e. connections with Math, Social Studies or Language Arts Standards):

Math

Math Standard 5.2.1

Recognize and represent patterns of change; use patterns, tables, graphs and rules to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

Benchmark 5.2.1.1

Create and use rules, tables, spreadsheets and graphs to describe patterns of change and solve problems.

Language Arts-Reading  Literature-Comprehension

The student will understand the meaning of texts using a variety of strategies and will demonstrate literal, interpretive, inferential and evaluative comprehension.

Misconceptions

Student Misconceptions 
  • What ever I am taught or learn in science, I should believe it is true.
  • There is only one scientific method to follow.

The Atlas of Science Literacy - AAAS- page 18

Benchmarks of Science Literacy

Misinterpretations of the scientific process

  • Science is a collection of facts.
  • There is a single Scientific Method that all scientists follow.
  • Scientific ideas are absolute and unchanging.
  • Science proves ideas.
  • Science can only disprove ideas.
  • The job of a scientist is to find support for his or her hypotheses.
  • Scientists are judged on the basis of how many correct hypotheses they propose (i.e., good scientists are the ones who are "right" most often).
  • Investigations that don't reach a firm conclusion are useless and unpublishable.
  • Science is pure. Scientists work without considering the applications of their ideas.
  • Zero results are not valid.

Vignette

(this vignette is aligned with Benchmark 5.1.1.1.3)

Picture a small community school just 30 miles from downtown Miami but in a rural, farm region of south Florida. This particular day, Ms. Alexander has arranged her students into cooperative learning groups, and they are excited, curious, and anxious about what is going to happen in the science lesson. Each group receives plastic gloves, dissecting needles, hand lenses, and an oval-shaped object wrapped in aluminum foil. Can the students predict and/or infer what the objects are? They unwrap the foil from the objects carefully and inspect the objects. An initial reaction from many students is, "Wow, I don't know if I really want to touch this." These reactions fade fast. The students use dissecting needles to separate parts that make up the oval-shaped objects and then to record observations and make inferences concerning what the objects or their contents might be and why they think so. Quickly, some students discover or infer that they are working with bones. Some say they are working with wishbones, and one student says these are hog bones (because hogs have a lot of bones). Some students think they can make out a bird's head, and one student thinks she can see parts of a hamster. Some students guess that they are working with dinosaur teeth, human teeth, or some kind of fossil. The students from each group sort the bones. The task of sorting and organizing the bones into recognizable entities is a problem-solving challenge. The challenge of discovering the mystery objects piques the students' curiosity. Although on this day no one infers the objects to be owl pellets, the pieces of bones lead to more discoveries about the animals that are consumed by barn owls.

Dr. George E. O'Brien, Miami, Florida International University Angela M. Alexander, Pine Villa Montessori School, Dade County (Florida) Public Schools

Resources

Instructional Notes 

Selected activities:

Simple Machines 5.2.2.1.1

Simple Machine lesson. To explore the parts of a system and develop students' understanding of the interactions between those parts. To engage in troubleshooting and design related to systems.

Science Netlinks: Pond Life 1:           Benchmarks 5.4.4.1.1, 5.1.1.1.2, 5.1.1.1.3

a look at aquatic ecosystems, in this activity students will investigate familiar and unfamiliar ecosystems using Internet resources; to explore how various organisms satisfy their needs within their environments; to study the kinds of relationships that exist between organisms within an environment. This activity would allow the teacher to tie in how humans interact with these systems in both positive and negative ways.

Science Netlinks: Pond Life 2: Benchmarks 5.4.4.1.1, 5.1.1.1.2, 5.1.1.1.3

Life in a Drop of Pond Water, a continuation of the Pond Life one activity. This activity will allow students to investigate the living creatures in a drop of pond water under magnification.

The Scientific Method Benchmark 5.1.1.1, 5.1.1.2, 5.1.1.3

This activity can be used introduce a basic version of the "scientific method".  Emphasis should be made that there are several different versions of the "scientific method". While there are similarities and differences between the scientific methods available, all the versions describe an organized process that helps us find answers to questions.

FOSS Variables Module: Activities 1,2,3,4  (See Benchmark 5.1.1.1.2)

Link

1. SWINGERS

Students experiment with variables that do and do not affect the behavior of pendulums. They graph their results and use their graphs to predict the behavior of additional pendulums.

2. LIFEBOATS

Students construct a fleet of paper-cup boats and discover how many passengers (pennies) each will hold before sinking. The variables of boat depth and arrangement of passengers are explored.

Benchmark 5.1.1.1.1

Monarchs in the Classroom- Milkweed Monitoring

Objective: Students will record the growth and development of milkweed plants,                tracking their appearance in the spring, and the rate at which they grow. If desired, they can track the use of these plants by insect herbivores.

Skills include: Observation, Measurement, Data recording, Graphing, Identify plants and organisms.

Project Budburst is a great resource for collecting data on plant phenology.   After recording data it can be compared to data collected at other sites across the country.  Dandelions, many types of trees.  worth a look at.

Many schools do not use Foss - how about combining study of soil with an investigation comparing the type of soil, or amount of organic matter and it's impact on plant growth.  Have a control along with multiple trials of the same treatments.  Then the results can be expected to be the same. 

FOSS investigations provide the opportunity for teachers to address this benchmark.

Landforms Investigation 3, Parts 1-3, pp. 8- 24

Solar Energy Investigation 3, Parts 1-2, pp. 8- 23

Levers and Pulleys Investigation 1, Parts 2-3, pp. 18-28

Environments Investigation 3, Parts 1-3, pp. 8- 22

Mixtures and Solutions Investigation 1, Part 2, pp. 16- 20

Water Planet Investigation 3, Part 1, pp. 125- 135

FOSS investigations provide the opportunity for teachers to address this benchmark.

For example: Measurement Errors, equipment failures, or uncontrolled variables

Benchmark 5.1.1.1.2

Variables Investigation 3, Parts 2-3, pp. 14-23

Models and Designs Investigation 4, Parts 1-2, pp. 6- 15

Food and Nutrition Investigation 2, Parts 2-3, pp. 18-25

Landforms Investigation 2, Parts 1-2, pp. 8- 22

Solar Energy Investigation 2, Parts 1-2, pp. 8- 24

Living Systems Investigation 3, Part 3, pp. 136- 142

FOSS investigations provide the opportunity for teachers to address this benchmark.

Benchmark 5.1.1.1.3

Variables Investigation 4, Part 3, pp. 18- 23

Living Systems Investigation 2, Part 1, pp. 85- 98

Solar Energy Investigation 3, Parts 1-2, pp. 8- 23

Mixtures and Solutions Investigation 1, Part 2, pp. 16- 20

Water Planet Investigation 2, Parts 2-3, pp. 86-10 0

How about combining with man's impact and use maps of invasives spreading, or compare  vegetation cross the state in the ecosystem study, correlating with precipiation and temperature to draw conclusions on why thedifferent  biomes of MN .

FOSS investigations provide the opportunity for teachers to address this benchmark.

For example: Different kinds of maps of a region provide different information                    about the land surface.

Benchmark 5.1.1.1.4

Landforms Investigation 2, Parts 1-2, pp. 8- 22 Investigation 3,  Parts1-3, pp. 8- 24

Solar Energy Investigation 4, Parts 1-2, pp. 8- 23

Environments Investigation 6, Parts 1-2, pp. 8- 17

Water Planet Investigation 3, Part 2, pp. 136- 144

The above investigations were provided from Delta Education in correlation with the MN Science Standards

FOSS Correlation with MINNESOTA SCIENCE STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS

How the Scientific Method Works from How Stuff Works

(Benchmarks 5.1.1.2, 5.1.1.1.4)

We hear about the scientific method every day. Middle and high school students learn about it in science class and use it in research competitions. Advertisers use it to support claims about products ranging from vacuum cleaners to vitamins. And Hollywood portrays it by showing scientists with clipboards and lab coats standing behind microscopes and flasks filled with bubbling liquids.   So why does the scientific method remain such a mystery to so many people? One reason has to do with the name itself. The word "method" implies that there is some sacred formula locked in a vault -- a formula available to highly trained scientists and no one else. This is absolutely untrue. The scientific method is something all of us use all of the time. In fact, engaging in the basic activities that make up the scientific method -- being curious, asking questions, seeking answers -- is a natural part of being human.

Instructional suggestions:

Science notebooking is a way to teach students how to record data in a clear and precise way. The students will take ownership in their work and be able to share their data with others. It also allows an experiment to be retested based on the information that the student recorded.

Science notebook presentation, how to set up a science notebook

Instructional Resources 

Additional resources or links

Books and related reading

Fulton, Lori and Brian Campbell. 2003 Science Notebooks: Writing about Inquiry. Heinemann,Portsmouth.

Worth, Karen and Sharon Grollman.  Worms, Shadows, and Whirlpools: Science in the Early Childhood Classroom . Heineman

How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition, National Academy of Sciences, 2003.

Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning with additional material from the Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice, National Research Council

Driver, Rosiland.  Children's Ideas in Science.  UK: Open University Press

Online Resources

FOSSWEB.com

PALS is an on-line, standards-based, continually updated resource bank of science performance assessment tasks indexed via the National Science Education Standards (NSES) and various other standards frameworks. Take theguided tour to become familiar with PALS.

Monarchs in the Classroom  - This site guides students through inquiry with monarchs and other Invertebrates.

Lawrence Hall of Science

Since 1968 the Lawrence Hall of Science, UC Berkeley's public science center, has provided parents, kids, and educators with opportunities to engage with science.

Science NetLinks -  this site lists a host of many science activities

BrainPop movies that address Benchmark 5.1.1.1.1

BrainPOP Science Projects

BrainPOP Scientific Method

BrainPOP Problem Solving Using Tables

BrainPop movies that address Benchmark 5.1.1.1.2

BrainPOP Science Projects

BrainPOP Scientific Method

BrainPOP Galileo Galilei

BrainPop movies that address Benchmark 5.1.1.1.3

BrainPOP Science Projects

BrainPOP Scientific Method

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New Vocabulary 

Vocabulary/Glossary

  • Empirical - originating in or based on observation or experience
  • Criterion (criteria) - a standard on which a judgment or decision may be based
  • Logical Argument - a course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or falsehood; the methodical process of logical reasoning
  • Controlled experiment: An experiment in which one, and only one, variable is changed in order to assess its effect.
  • Evidence: that which tends to prove or disprove something; ground for belief; proof.
  • Models: 1. a standard or example for imitation or comparison.  2. a representation, generally in miniature, to show the construction or appearance of something.
  • Theory: A set of principles that explains a natural event.
  • Variable: A factor or condition that can change and might affect the outcome of an experiment.
  • Independent Variable: typically the variable representing the value being manipulated or changed
  • Dependent Variable: is the observed result of the independent variable being manipulated.
  • replication : the ability of a experiment or study to be accurately reproduced, or reproduced, by someone else working independently. It is one of the main principles of the scientific method.
Technology Connections 

NASA Engineering Design Challenge- Lunar Pant Growth Chamber

Plant growth will be an important part of space exploration in the future as NASA plans for long-duration missions to the moon. NASA scientists anticipate that astronauts may be able to grow plants on the moon, and the plants could be used to supplement meals.

In anticipation of the need for research into lunar plant growth, NASA and the International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, or ITEEA, present the NASA Engineering Design Challenge: Lunar Plant Growth Chamber. Elementary, middle and high school students design, build and evaluate lunar plant growth chambers -- while engaging in research- and standards-based learning experiences. Students participate in the engineering design process and learn how to conduct a scientific experiment.

The engineering design process involves a series of steps that lead to the development of a new product or system. In this design challenge, students are to complete each step and document their work as they develop their lunar plant growth chamber. The students should be able to do the following:

Engineering Design Process by The Works

The Works has created a kid-friendly version of the engineering design process for elementary school students and teachers.

Engineering Pathway

Learn, Connect, and Create with high-quality teaching and learning resources in applied science and math, engineering, computer science/information technology, and engineering technology for use by K-12 and university educators and students.

Smart Notebook lessons

Smart NoteBook Lesson- Introduction to Coordinate Graphing

(Addresses Benchmark 5.1.1.1 & 5.1.1.2)

Student-run presentation. Vocabulary, practice graphing coordinate pairs, NASA video, components of a GREAT Graph, SMART Response question set.

Search terms:  Coordinate PairIndependent VariableGreat GraphDependent VariableGraphingUlreyCoordinateCoordinate GraphVariableGraphOrdered Pair

Smart Notebook Lesson - Black Box for FOSS Models & Designs unit

GOALS

The four investigations in the Models and Designs Module provide experiences that develop the concept of a scientific model and engage students in design and construction. The atmosphere generated by this module is one of open discussion, free exchange of ideas, and development of ideas into products.

FOSS EXPECTS STUDENTS TO

Manipulate objects and materials.

Design and construct conceptual and physical models.

Look for relationships between structure and function of materials and systems.

Organize and analyze data from investigations with physical objects and systems.

Apply mathematics in the context of science.

Acquire vocabulary associated with engineering and technology.

Gain confidence in their abilities to solve problems.

Learn that there is often more than one solution to a problem.

Communicate ideas to peers and work in a collaborative scientific manner.

Use scientific thinking processes to conduct investigations and build explanations: observing, communicating, comparing, organizing, and relating.

FOSSModels and Designs Module

Cross Curricular Connections 

Elementary FOSS Science Literature File

Lists of books, multimedia videos, software, and teacher resources to support FOSS science curriculum. Includes support, resources and fun activities for all modules, years, and grade levels.

related literature

Link

Book Source

Booksource offers literature correlated to the FOSS Science Curriculum.  Collections are organized by grade level and by the topics recommended in the FOSS curriculum.

Assessment

Students:

formative

The RERUN method (from Monarch's in the Classroom.) is one method of writing conclusions. RERUN is a short paragraph used to summarize the results from a scientific study. The RERUN paragraph should be a minimum of five well-written, complete sentences. RERUN is an acronym for five types of information that a conclusion should include:

R = Recall: Describe what you did briefly.

E = Explain: Explain the purpose of the study.

R = Results: State the results, including which hypothesis was supported by the study.

U = Uncertainty: Describe uncertainties that exist, if any.

N = New: Write two new things you learned.

Sample formative Assesment

PALS Density and Buoyancy Performance assessment (level 3)

"Come up with a question that addresses the factors (variables) of the water and its effect on whether an object will float or sink."

Inquiry Assessment

What does Assessment of Inquiry Look Like?

Assessment of active knowledge can take many forms, some of which are indistinguishable from the learning process. Assessments can be individual or group, or a combination of both. It is important to note, however, that assessments must generate evidence of individual achievement in order to be useful. Assessment of inquiry should smoothly link content with process. Assessment should mirror what is most highly valued - scientific understanding, reasoning, and knowledge. As with instruction, the student should be central to assessment.

Assessment of inquiry can take on many forms. Some include . . .

Interviews

Projects

Formal performance tasks

Portfolios

Checklists

Written reports

Multiple choice

Short answer

Essay examinations

Teachers:

How will accurate record keeping allow for students to scrutinize evidence from a science activity?

What methods are best used for students to understand that repeated investigations should produce the same results and how will they investigate discrepancies in those results

How can I use a variety of models to explain that our natural environment and science can have different results or show different information?

Administrators: Students understanding the process of scientific investigations.

1.      Students describing the results of an experiment through the use of making a data table, making graphs, and analyzing data with simple statistical tests.

2.      Students observing that when a science investigation or experiment is repeated, a similar result is expected.

Differentiation

Struggling Learners 

Struggling and At-Risk:

This book would be a good resource for younger or emerging readers.

How Do You Lift a Lion?

Wells, R.E. (1996). How do you lift a lion. Morton Grove, IL: Albert Whitman & Co.

Description: Provides a simple introduction to the use of levers, pulleys, and wheels to move heavy objects. Technical terms are introduced in the text as well as in a glossary.

English Language Learners 

Improving Science and Vocabulary Learning of English Language Learners

This link will bring you to a pdf that outlines some great ideas to support your ELL students.

FOSS Science Stories for ELL, literary challenged or Hearing Impaired

This link provides an audio version of the stories and vocabulary associated with the FOSS Levers & Pulleys unit

Link

At this site, click on: "for Parents & Teachers" - "Teacher Resources" - "Audio Stories"

This link provides an audio version of the stories and vocabulary associated with the FOSS Variables unit

Link

At this site, click on: "for Parents & Teachers" - "Teacher Resources" - "Audio Stories"

This link provides an audio version of the stories and vocabulary associated with the FOSS Environments unit

Link

At this site, click on: "for Parents & Teachers" - "Teacher Resources" - "Audio Stories"

Extending the Learning 

Gifted and Talented Teachers toolkit

Gifted students should use inquiry techniques to generate ideas about a topic, issue or question.  Some models include using creative problem solving, inquiry processes, and/or advanced thinking skills.  these processes include understanding what the student already knows about the topic, discovering the known facts about the topic, brainstorming ideas about the topic, synthesizing and evaluating information, and establishing information, and establishing conclusions.

HOTS - Hooked on Thinking works with schools, businesses and learning communities to transform student learning outcomes.

Multi-Cultural 

All FOSS Units come with reproducibles and teacher materials in Spanish

Special Education 

Autism And Engineering: What's The Connection

In 1997 researchers from the University of Cambridge published a groundbreaking study that showed that fathers and grandfathers of children with autism were more likely to be engineers than fathers and grandfathers of children with Tourette Syndrome, Downs Syndrome, language development delays and children without language development delays. Specifically, 12.5% of autistic children with in the study had engineers for fathers, while the non-autistic children in the study all had engineers for fathers less than 6% of the time.

Comments

Science/Math

Lessons to be used for each Benchmark

incorrect label

The Subject for this framework is incorrect: It should read "science" not "math"