4.3.2B Area
Overview
Standard 4.3.2 Essential Understandings/Ideas
Fourth graders measure angles in realworld objects and geometric figures using protractors or angle rulers. They compare angles according to size and categorize angles as acute, right, or obtuse.
Fourth graders develop a conceptual understanding of area as they find the area of two dimensional figures by finding the total number of samesize square units that cover the shape without gaps or overlaps.
All Standard Benchmarks
4.3.2.1 Measure angles in geometric figures and realworld objects with a protractor or angle ruler.
4.3.2.2 Compare angles according to size. Classify angles as acute, right and obtuse.
4.3.2.3 Understand that the area of a twodimensional figure can be found by counting the total number of same size square units that cover a shape without gaps or overlaps. Justify why length and width are multiplied to find the area of a rectangle by breaking the rectangle into one unit by one unit squares and viewing these as grouped into rows and columns.
4.3.2.4 Find the areas of geometric figures and realworld objects that can be divided into rectangular shapes. Use square units to label area measurements.
Benchmark Group B
4.3.2.3 Understand that the area of a twodimensional figure can be found by counting the total number of same size square units that cover a shape without gaps or overlaps. Justify why length and width are multiplied to find the area of a rectangle by breaking the rectangle into one unit by one unit squares and viewing these as grouped into rows and columns.
4.3.2.4 Find the areas of geometric figures and realworld objects that can be divided into rectangular shapes. Use square units to label area measurements.
What students should know and be able to do [at a mastery level] related to these benchmarks:
 understand area as covering
 find area by counting the number of samesize units that cover a shape without gaps or overlays.
For example:
 justify why length and width are multiplied to find the area of a rectangle by breaking the rectangle into 1 x 1 unit squares and seeing them as grouped into rows and columns.
 label area measurements using square units (cm, inches, feet, etc.) .
Work from previous grades that supports this new learning includes:
 Measure to the nearest half unit using inches, feet, yards, centimeters and meters.
 Understand perimeter is a measure of distance.
 Find the distance around a figure in inches, feet, yards, centimeters, and meters to the nearest half unit.
 Find the length of an unknown side given the length of the other sides and the perimeter.
 Find the perimeter of polygons having at most six sides.
 Identify twodimensional shapes.
 Understand multiplication can be represented as an array.
NCTM Standards
Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement
Grades 35 Expectations:
 understand such attributes as length, area, weight, volume, and size of angle and select the appropriate type of unit for measuring each attribute;
 understand the need for measuring with standard units and become familiar with standard units in the customary and metric systems;
 carry out simple unit conversions, such as from centimeters to meters, within a system of measurement;
 understand that measurements are approximations and how differences in units affect precision;
 explore what happens to measurements of a twodimensional shape such as its perimeter and area when the shape is changed in some way.
Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements
Grades 35 Expectations:
 develop strategies for estimating the perimeters, areas, and volumes of irregular shapes;
 select and apply appropriate standard units and tools to measure length, area, volume, weight, time, temperature, and the size of angles;
 select and use benchmarks to estimate measurements;
 develop, understand, and use formulas to find the area of rectangles and related triangles and parallelograms;
 develop strategies to determine the surface areas and volumes of rectangular solids.
Common Core State Standards
Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.
 4.MD.1. Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a twocolumn table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ...
 4.MD.2. Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.
 4.MD.3. Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.
Represent and interpret data.
 4.MD.4. Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection.
Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.
 4.MD.5. Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:
 4.MD.5a. An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a "onedegree angle," and can be used to measure angles.
 4.MD.5b. An angle that turns through n onedegree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.
 4.MD.6. Measure angles in wholenumber degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure.
 4.MD.7. Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into nonoverlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.
Misconceptions
Students may think...
 the area of a figure is related to its perimeter.
 the measurement of area and perimeter are the same, not realizing that perimeter is the measurement around the outside and area is the measurement of what covers the inside of the figure.
 only squares can be labeled with "square units"
this is a misunderstanding of what "square units" represents
 simply drawing lines on rectangles will help them make squares and find the area of the figure. This will only help if they know the length of each side, make the correct number of squares and understand why counting these squares are a way to find the area.
 adding the length of the sides of a figure is the way to find area.
Resources
Teacher Notes
 Students may need support in further development of previously studied concepts and skills.
 Most researchers agree there are four components of measuring:
 conservation (objects maintain their same size and shape when measured),
 transitivity (two objects can be compared in terms of a measurable quality, using another object),
 units (the type of units used to measure an object depends on the attribute being measured), and
 unit iteration (the units must be repeated, or iterated, in order to to determine the measure of an object." (Chapin, Johnson, 2006)
 To measure an attribute of an object with understanding, students should complete three steps:
1. Decide on the attribute (length) to be measured.
2. Select an appropriate unit for measuring that attribute (length).
3. Count the number of units needed to accurately represent the attribute (length) being measured.
 Teaching area and perimeter together or in succession "may cause confusion because both area and perimeter require students to consider the boundaries of the shape." (Bamberger, Oberdorf, ShultzFerrell, 2010)
 Many students have had experience solving multiplication problems using the array or area model of multiplication. This is extremely helpful in building on their understanding finding area as a concept of measurement.
 While fourth graders justify why length and width are multiplied to find the area of a rectangle by breaking the rectangle into 1 x 1 unit squares and seeing them as grouped into rows and columns, they are not formally developing the formula for area.
 Encouraging students to build models with tiles or connecting cubes helps to reinforce their understanding of area.
 Providing graph paper in a variety of sizes (centimeter and 1 inch grid paper) helps students to build original polygons and draw connections between appropriate labels, square centimeters and square inches as represented on their paper.
 Having students work with a small group to cover one of their desks or other reasonable classroom surface with either 1 inch tiles or 1 inch square grid paper reinforces understandings that reallife objects are measured using square units.
 Good questions, and good listening, will help children make sense of the mathematics, build selfconfidence and encourage mathematical thinking and communication. A good question opens up a problem and supports different ways of thinking about it. The best questions are those that cannot be answered with a "yes" or a "no."
Getting Started
What do you need to find out?
What do you know now? How can you get the information? Where can you begin?
What terms do you understand/not understand?
What similar problems have you solved that would help?
While Working
How can you organize the information?
Can you make a drawing (model) to explain your thinking? What are other possibilities?
What would happen if...?
Can you describe an approach (strategy) you can use to solve this?
What do you need to do next?
Do you see any patterns or relationships that will help you solve this?
How does this relate to...?
Why did you...?
What assumptions are you making?
Reflecting about the Solution
How do you know your solution (conclusion) is reasonable? How did you arrive at your answer?
How can you convince me your answer makes sense?
What did you try that did not work? Has the question been answered?
Can the explanation be made clearer?
Responding (helps clarify and extend their thinking)
Tell me more.
Can you explain it in a different way?
Is there another possibility or strategy that would work?
Is there a more efficient strategy?
Help me understand this part ...
(Adapted from They're Counting on Us, California Mathematics Council, 1995)
NCTM Illuminations
Perimeter and Area of My Clubhouse
Worksheet  This reproducible activity sheet from an Illuminations lesson prompts students to determine the area and perimeter of several shapes that represent clubhouse.
In this unit of four lessons from Illuminations, students learn basic architectural concepts such as using basic linear measurement, understanding and...
Additional Instructional Resources
Anderson, N., Gavin, M., Dailey, J., Stone, W., & Vuolo, J. (2005). Navigating through measurement in grades 35. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Gavin, M., Belkin, L., Soinelli, A., & St. Marie, J. (2001). Navigating through geometry in grades 35. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Small, M. (2009). Good questions: Great ways to differentiate mathematics instruction. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Van de Walle, J., Karp, K., & BayWilliams, J. (2010). Elementary and middle school mathematics: Teaching developmentally. (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Van de Walle, J., & Lovin, L. (2006). Teaching studentcentered mathematics grades 35. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
"Vocabulary literally is the key tool for thinking."
Ruby Payne
Mathematics vocabulary words describe mathematical relationships and concepts and cannot be understood by simply practicing definitions. Students need to have experiences communicating ideas using these words to explain, support, and justify their thinking.
Learning vocabulary in the mathematics classroom is contingent upon the following:
Integration: Connecting new vocabulary to prior knowledge and previously learned vocabulary. The brain seeks connections and ways to make meaning which occurs when accessing prior knowledge.
Repetition: Using the word or concept many times during the learning process and connecting the word or concept with its meaning. The role of the teacher is to provide experiences that will guarantee connections are made between mathematical concepts, relationships, and corresponding vocabulary words.
Meaningful Use: Multiple and varied opportunities to use the words in context. These opportunities occur when students explain their thinking, ask clarifying questions, write about mathematics, and think aloud when solving problems. Teachers should be constantly probing student thinking in order to determine if students are connecting mathematics concepts and relationships with appropriate mathematics vocabulary.
Strategies for vocabulary development
Students do not learn vocabulary words by memorizing and practicing definitions. The following strategies keep vocabulary visible and accessible during instruction.
Mathematics Word Bank: Each unit of study should have word banks visible during instruction. Words and corresponding definitions are added to the word bank as the need arises. Students refer to word banks when communicating mathematical ideas which leads to greater understanding and application of words in context.
Labeled pictures and charts: Diagrams that are labeled provide opportunities for students to anchor their thinking as they develop conceptual understanding and increase opportunities for student learning.
Frayer Model: The Frayer Model connects words, definitions, examples and nonexamples.
Example/Nonexample Charts: This graphic organizer allows students to reason about mathematical relationships as they develop conceptual understanding of mathematics vocabulary words. Teachers should use these during the instructional process to engage student in thinking about the meaning of words.
Vocabulary Strips: Vocabulary strips give students a way to organize critical information about mathematics vocabulary words.
word  definition  illustration 
Encouraging students to verbalize thinking by drawing, talking, and writing, increases opportunities to use the mathematics vocabulary words in context.
Additional Resources for Vocabulary Development
Murray, M. (2004). Teaching mathematics vocabulary in context. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Sammons, L. (2011). Building mathematical comprehension: Using literacy strategies to make meaning. Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Education.
Reflection  Critical Questions regarding the teaching and learning of these benchmarks
What are the key ideas related to finding area at the fourth grade level? How do student misconceptions interfere with mastery of these ideas?
What experiences do students need in order to successfully find the area?
What common errors do fourth graders make when finding area?
When checking for student understanding of finding area, what should teachers
 listen for in student conversations?
 look for in student work?
 ask during classroom discussions?
Examine student work related to a task involving finding area. What evidence do you need to say a student is proficient? Using three pieces of student work, determine what student understanding is observed through the work.
How can teachers assess student learning related to these benchmarks?
How are these benchmarks related to other benchmarks at the fourth grade level?
Professional Learning Community Resources
Bamberger, H., Oberdorf, C., & SchultzFerrell, K. (2010). Math misconceptions prekgrade 5: From misunderstanding to deep understanding. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Chapin, S., and Johnson, A. (2006). Math matters: Understanding the math you teach, grades K8. (2^{nd} ed.). Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Press.
Chapin, S., O'Connor, C., & Canavan Anderson, N. (2009). Classroom discussions: Using math talk to help students learn (Grades K6). Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
Fosnot, C., & Dolk, M. (2002). Young mathematicians at work: Multiplication and division. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Hyde, Arthur. (2006). Comprehending math adapting reading strategies to teach mathematics, K6. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Lester, F. (2010). Teaching and learning mathematics: Transforming research for elementary school teachers. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Otto, A., Caldwell, J., Wallus Hancock, S., & Zbiek, R.(2011). Developing essential understanding of multiplication and division for teaching mathematics in grades 3  5. Reston, VA.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Parrish, S. (2010). Number talks: Helping children build mental math and computation strategies grades K5. Sausalito. CA: Math Solutions.
Sammons, L., (2011). Building mathematical comprehension: Using literacy strategies to make meaning. Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Education.
Schielack, J. (2009). Focus in grade 3, teaching with curriculum focal points. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Bamberger, H., Oberdorf, C., & SchultzFerrell, K. (2010). Math misconceptions prekgrade 5: From misunderstanding to deep understanding. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Bender, W. (2009). Differentiating math instruction: Strategies that work for k8 classrooms! Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Bresser, R., Melanese, K., & Sphar, C. (2008). Supporting English language learners in math class, grades k2. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications.
Burns, Marilyn. (2007). About teaching mathematics: A k8 resource (3rd ed.). Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications.
Burns, M. (Ed). (1998). Leading the way: Principals and superintendents look at math instruction. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
Caldera, C. (2005). Houghton Mifflin math and English language learners. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Carpenter, T., Fennema, E., Franke, M., Levi, L., & Empson, S. (1999). Children's mathematics cognitively guided instruction. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Cavanagh, M. (2006). Math to learn: A mathematics handbook. Wilmington, MA: Great Source Education Group, Inc.
Chapin, S., & Johnson, A. (2006). Math matters: Understanding the math you teach, grades K8. (2nd ed.). Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Press.
Chapin, S., O'Connor, C., & Canavan Anderson, N. (2009). Classroom discussions: Using math talk to help students learn (Grades K6). Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
Dacey, L., & Salemi, R. (2007). Math for all: Differentiating instruction k2. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
Donovan, S., & Bradford, J. (Eds). (2005). How students learn: Mathematics in the classroom. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Dougherty, B., Flores, A., Louis, E., & Sophian, C. (2010). Developing essential understanding of number & numeration prekgrade 2. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Felux, C., & Snowdy, P. (Eds.). ( 2006). The math coach field guide: Charting your course. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
Fuson, K., Clements, D., & Beckmann, S. (2009). Focus in grade 2 teaching with curriculum focal points. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Hyde, Arthur. (2006). Comprehending math adapting reading strategies to teach mathematics, K6. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Kilpatrick, J., & Swafford, J. (Eds). (2001). Adding it up: Helping children learn mathematics. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Leinwand, S. (2000). Sensible mathematics: A guide for school leaders. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Lester, F. (2010). Teaching and learning mathematics: Transforming research for elementary school teachers. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Murray, M. (2004). Teaching mathematics vocabulary in context. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Murray, M., & Jorgensen, J. (2007). The differentiated math classroom: A guide for teachers k8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: NCTM.
Parrish, S. (2010). Number talks: Helping children build mental math and computation strategies grades K5. Sausalito. CA: Math Solutions.
Reeves, D. (2007). Ahead of the curve: The power of assessment to transform teaching and learning. Indiana: Solution Tree Press.
Sammons, L. (2011). Building mathematical comprehension: Using literacy strategies to make meaning. Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Education.
Schielack, J., Charles, R., Clements, D., Duckett, P., Fennell, F., Lewandowski, S., ... & Zbiek, R. M. (2006). Curriculum focal points for prekindergarten through grade 8 mathematics: A quest for coherence. Reston, VA: NCTM.
Seeley, C. (2009). Faster isn't smarter: Messages about math teaching and learning in the 21st century. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
Small, M. (2009). Good questions: Great ways to differentiate mathematics instruction. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Van de Walle, J., Karp, K., BayWilliams, J. (2010). Elementary and middle school mathematics: Teaching developmentally. (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Van de Walle, J. A., & Lovin, L. H. (2006). Teaching studentcentered mathematics grades K3. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
West, L., & Staub, F. (2003). Content focused coaching: Transforming mathematics lessons. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Assessment
 The shape of a floor is shown. How large is it?
A. 40 sq. ft.
B. 131 sq. ft.
C. 171sq. ft.
D. 180 sq. ft.
Solution: B. 131 sq. ft.
Benchmark: 4.3.2.3 & 4.3.2.4
MCA III Item Ssmpler
 Kira is using 1inch square tiles to cover a table top. The table top is 24 inches long and 18 inches wide. She lays the tiles into strips of 6.






How many strips of tiles will Kira need to cover the table with no gaps or overlaps?
A. 14
B. 18
C. 72
D. 432
Solution: C. 72
Benchmark: 4.3.2.3 & 4.3.2.4
MCA III Item Ssmpler
Differentiation
Struggling learners see that tiling and counting by 1's, 2's, 5's and 10's can be used to help them when finding area.
Using square tiles to find the area of desk tops or table tops helps students understand the concept of area.
Grids on transparency film can be used as overlays when finding areas.
Concrete  Representational  Abstract Instructional Approach
Adapted from The Access Center: Improving Access for All K8 Students
The ConcreteRepresentationalAbstract Instructional Approach (CRA) is a researchbased instructional strategy that has proven effective in enhancing the mathematics performance of students who struggle with mathematics.
The CRA approach is based on three stages during the learning process:
Concrete  Representational  Abstract
The Concrete Stage is the doing stage. The concrete stage is the most critical in terms of developing conceptual understanding of mathematical skills and concepts. At this stage, teachers use manipulatives to model mathematical concepts. The physical act of touching and moving manipulatives enables students to experience the mathematical concept at a concrete level. Research shows that students who use concrete materials develop more precise and comprehensive mental representations, understand and apply mathematical concepts, and are more motivated and ontask. Manipulatives must be selected based upon connections to the mathematical concept and the students' developmental level.
The Representational Stage is the drawing stage. Mathematical concepts are represented using pictures or drawings of the manipulatives previously used at the Concrete Stage. Students move to this level after they have successfully used concrete materials to demonstrate conceptual understanding and solve problems. They are moving from a concrete level of understanding toward an abstract level of understanding when drawing or using pictures to represent their thinking. Students continue exploring the mathematical concept at this level while teachers are asking questions to elicit student thinking and understanding.
The Abstract Stage is the symbolic stage. Teachers model mathematical concepts using numbers and mathematical symbols. Operation symbols are used to represent addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Some students may not make a clean transfer to this level. They will work with some symbols and some pictures as they build abstract understanding. Moving to the abstract level too quickly causes many student errors. Practice at the abstract level will not lead to increased understanding unless students have a foundation based upon concrete and pictorial representations.
Additional Resources
Bender, W. (2009). Differentiating math instruction: Strategies that work for k8 classrooms! Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Dacey, L., & Lynch, J. (2007). Math for all: Differentiating instruction grades 35. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
Murray, M. & Jorgensen, J. (2007). The differentiated math classroom: guide for teachers k8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Small, M. (2009). Good questions: Great ways to differentiate mathematics instruction. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Van de Walle, J., Karp, K., BayWilliams, J. (2010). Elementary and middle school mathematics: Teaching developmentally. (7th ed.) Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Van de Walle, J. & Lovin, L. (2006). Teaching studentcentered mathematics grades 35. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
Using concrete materials provide a context for conceptual development of the concept of area.
Incorporate appropriate vocabulary and language descriptions at every opportunity as students are finding area.
 Word banks need to be part of the student learning environment in every mathematics unit of study. Refer to these throughout instruction.
 Use vocabulary graphic organizers such as the Frayer model (see below) to emphasize vocabulary words count, first, second, third, etc.
 Sentence Frames
Math sentence frames provide support that English Language Learners need in order to fully participate in math discussions. Sentence frames provide appropriate sentence structure models, increase the likelihood of responses using content vocabulary, help students to conceptualize words and build confidence in English Language Learners.
Sample sentence frames related to these benchmarks:
The area is ___________ because __________________________________________. 
Finding area means______________________________________________________. 
 When assessing the math skills of an ELL student it is important to determine if the student has difficulty with the math concept or with the language used to describe the concept and conceptual understanding.
Additional ELL Resources:
Bresser, R., Melanese, K., & Sphar, C. (2008). Supporting English language learners in math class, grades k2. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions Publications.
Investigate if figures having the same perimeter also have the same area.
Investigate if figures having the same area also have the same perimeter.
Investigate what happens to the area of a rectangle if the length is doubled. What happens to the area of a rectangle if both the length and width are doubled?
Find five quadrilaterals having the same area.
Additional Resources
Bender, W. (2009). Differentiating math instructionstrategies that work for k8 classrooms! Thousand Oaks, CA.: Corwin Press.
Dacey, L., & Lynch, J. (2007). Math for all: Differentiating instruction grades 35. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
Murray, M. & Jorgensen, J. (2007). The differentiated math classroom: A guide for teachers k8. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Small, M. (2009). Good questions: Great ways to differentiate mathematics instruction. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Parents/Admin
Students are...  Teachers are... 
finding area by covering given figures/shapes with tiles and recording their findings using square units.  reinforcing the idea of unit iteration when finding area. 
showing the relationship between tiling and using "length times width" to find the total number of tiles.  asking students to share ideas and prove the area of an object or figure. 
finding areas of geometric figures by dividing them into rectangular shapes and finding the area of each rectangle.  helping students divide figures appropriately, supporting thinking and problem solving abilities by asking questions and probing thinking. 
Additional Resources
Chapin, S. and Johnson, A. (2006). Math matters: Understanding the math you teach: Grades k8. (2nd ed.). Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
Donovan, S., & Bradford, J. (Eds). (2005). How students learn: Mathematics in the classroom. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Felux, C., & Snowdy, P. (Eds.). ( 2006). The math coach field guide: Charting your course. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
Sammons, L., (2011). Building mathematical comprehension: Using literacy strategies to make meaning. Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Education.
West, L., & Staub, F. (2003). Content focused coaching: Transforming mathematics lessons. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
For Administrators
Burns, M. (Ed). (1998). Leading the way: Principals and superintendents look at math instruction. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
Kilpatrick, J., & Swafford, J. (Eds). (2001). Adding it up: Helping children learn mathematics. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Leinwand, S. (2000). Sensible mathematics: A guide for school leaders. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Lester, F. (2010). Teaching and learning mathematics: Transforming research for school administrators. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
Seeley, C. (2009). Faster isn't smarter: Messages about math teaching and learning in the 21st century. Sausalito, CA: Math Solutions.
Parent Resources
Mathematics handbooks to be used as home references:
Cavanagh, M. (2004). Math to Know: A mathematics handbook. Wilmington, MA: Great Source Education Group, Inc.
Cavanagh, M. (2006). Math to learn: A mathematics handbook. Wilmington, MA: Great Source Education Group, Inc.
Helping your child learn mathematics
Provides activities for children in preschool through grade 5
What should I look for in the mathematics program in my child's school? A Guide for Parents developed by SciMathMN
Help Your Children Make Sense of Math
Ask the right questions
In helping children learn, one goal is to assist children in becoming critical and independent thinkers. You can help by asking questions that guide, without telling them what to do.
Good questions, and good listening, will help children make sense of the mathematics, build selfconfidence and encourage mathematical thinking and communication. A good question opens up a problem and supports different ways of thinking about it. The best questions are those that cannot be answered with a "yes" or a "no."
Getting Started
What do you need to find out?
What do you know now? How can you get the information? Where can you begin?
What terms do you understand/not understand?
What similar problems have you solved that would help?
While Working
How can you organize the information?
Can you make a drawing (model) to explain your thinking? What are other possibilities?
What would happen if . . . ?
Can you describe an approach (strategy) you can use to solve this?
What do you need to do next?
Do you see any patterns or relationships that will help you solve this?
How does this relate to ...?
Can you make a prediction?
Why did you...?
What assumptions are you making?
Reflecting about the Solution
How do you know your solution (conclusion) is reasonable? How did you arrive at your answer?
How can you convince me your answer makes sense?
What did you try that did not work?
Has the question been answered?
Can the explanation be made clearer?
Responding (helps clarify and extend their thinking)
Tell me more.
Can you explain it in a different way?
Is there another possibility or strategy that would work?
Is there a more efficient strategy?
Help me understand this part...
Adapted from They're counting on us, California Mathematics Council, 1995.
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