# 4.2.3.2 Transformed

4
Subject:
Science
Strand:
Physical Science
Substrand:
Energy
Standard 4.2.3.2

Energy can be transformed within a system or transferred to other systems or the environment.

Benchmark: 4.2.3.2.1 Generating Heat Energy

Identify several ways to generate heat energy.

For example: Burning a substance, rubbing hands together, or electricity flowing through wires.

Benchmark: 4.2.3.2.2 Simple Electric Circuits

Construct a simple electrical circuit using wires, batteries and light bulbs.

Benchmark: 4.2.3.2.3 Electric Current & Magnetism

Demonstrate how an electric current can produce a magnetic force.

For example: Construct an electromagnet to pick up paperclips.

## Overview

Standard in Lay Terms

Energy can change.  Energy can transfer to other places or things.

Big Ideas and Essential Understandings

The one aspect of the energy story in which students of this age can make some headway is heat, which is produced almost everywhere. In their science and technology activities during these years, students should be alerted to look for things and processes that give off heat-lights, radios, television sets, the sun, sawing wood, polishing surfaces, bending things, running motors, people, animals, etc.-and then for those that seem not to give off heat. Also, the time is appropriate to explore how heat spreads from one place to another and what can be done to contain it or shield things from it.

Students need not come out of this grade span understanding heat or its difference from temperature. In this spirit, there is little to be gained by having youngsters refer to heat as heat energy. More important, students should become familiar with the warming of objects that start out cooler than their environment, and vice versa.  Because many students think of cold as a substance that spreads like heat, there may be some advantage in translating descriptions of transfer of cold into terms of transfer of heat.

Benchmark Cluster

MN Standard Benchmarks :

• Identify several ways to generate heat energy. (4.2.3.2.1)

For example: Burning a substance, rubbing hands together, or electricity flowing through wires.

• Construct a simple electrical circuit using wires, batteries and light bulbs. (4.2.3.2.2)
• Demonstrate how an electric current can produce a magnetic force. (4.2.3.2.3)

For example: Construct an electromagnet to pick up paperclips.

THE ESSENTIALS:

• A quote, cartoon or video clip link directly related to the standard.
• Joke:

How did Benjamin Franklin feel when he discovered electricity?

A: He was shocked!

• Joke:

TEACHER: Name a conductor of electricity.

PUPIL: Why er

TEACHER: Wire is right. Name a unit of electrical power.

PUPIL: What?

TEACHER: The watt is absolutely correct.

Correlations
• NSES Standards:

CONTENT STANDARD B: As a result of the activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of

- Properties of objects and materials

- Position and motion of objects

- Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism

• AAAS Atlas:
• Energy Transformations - Grades 3-5:
• When warmer things are put with cooler ones, the warmer things get cooler and the cooler things get warmer until they all are the same temperature.
• When warmer things are put with cooler ones, heat is transferred from the warmer ones to the cooler ones.
• A warmer object can warm a cooler one by contact or at a distance.
• Electricity and Magnetism - Grades 3-5:
• Without touching them, an object that as been electrically charged pulls on all other charged objects and may either push or pull other charged objects.
• Changes in speed or direction of motion are caused by forces.
• Without touching them, a magnet pulls on all things made of iron and either pushes or pulls on other magnets.
• Benchmarks of Science Literacy:
• Energy Transformations: By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that
• When two objects are rubbed against each other, they both get warmer. In addition, many mechanical and electrical devices get warmer when they are used. 4E/E1*
• When warmer things are put with cooler ones, the warmer things get cooler and the cooler things get warmer until they all are the same temperature. 4E/E2a*
• When warmer things are put with cooler ones, heat is transferred from the warmer ones to the cooler ones. 4E/E2b*
• A warmer object can warm a cooler one by contact or at a distance. 4E/E2c
• Forces of Nature: By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that
• The earth's gravity pulls any object on or near the earth toward it without touching it. 4G/E1*
• Without touching them, a magnet pulls on all things made of iron and either pushes or pulls on other magnets. 4G/E2
• Without touching them, an object that has been electrically charged pulls on all other uncharged objects and may either push or pull other charged objects. 4G/E3*
• NAEP (optional)
• Common Core Standards (i.e. connections with Math, Social Studies or Language Arts Standards):

Language Arts:

• Informational Text: 3. Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

Writing:

• Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

a.       Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

b.       Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.

c.       Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).

d.       Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

e.          Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

## Misconceptions

Student Misconceptions

Students' ideas of heat have many wrinkles. In some situations, cold is thought to be transferred rather than heat. Some materials may be thought to be intrinsically warm (blankets) or cold (metals). Objects that keep things warm-such as a sweater or mittens-may be thought to be sources of heat. Only a continuing mix of experiment and discussion is likely to dispel these ideas.

The main notion to convey here is that forces can act at a distance. Students should carry out investigations to become familiar with the pushes and pulls of magnets and static electricity. The term gravity may interfere with students' understanding because it often is used as an empty label for the common (and ancient) notion of "natural motion" toward the earth. The important point is that the earth pulls on objects.

Electric and magnetic forces and the relationship between them ought also to be treated qualitatively. Fields can be introduced, but only intuitively. Most important is that students get a sense of electric and magnetic force fields (as well as of gravity) and of some simple relations between magnets and electric currents. Direction rules have little importance for general literacy. The priority should be on what conditions produce a magnetic field and what conditions induce an electric current. Diagrams of electric and magnetic fields promote some misconceptions about "lines of force," notably that the force exists only on those lines. Students should recognize that the lines are used only to show the direction of the field.

## Vignette

Ms. V's fourth grade class is ending a unit on electricity and magnetism with the               investigation of electromagnets. To begin, the students gather supplies (iron nail, D-cell   battery, insulated wire, battery holder, small paper clips) and work in small cooperative    groups and follow a procedure to construct a standard electromagnet with 20 wire wraps. When each group has a working electromagnet, Ms. V asks the students to brainstorm what they are now wondering about electromagnets.  Some want to know where electromagnets are found in the real-world.  Some want to know how to construct an electromagnet that will pick up more paper clips or other items.  The class lists possible variables they could change on the standard electromagnet. The number of wire wraps around a nail, the closeness or distance of wire wraps on the nail, and comparing different core material (iron nail, screw, metal spoon) are some of the variables they brainstormed to investigate.  Ms. V lists all the questions on the interactive whiteboard and rephrases some. With the standard benchmark in mind, students need to demonstrate how an electric current can produce a magnetic force. Ms. V circles for study those questions, which address that benchmark.

To begin, students work to design their own procedures to address one question from the approved list.  Students write draft procedures that take into account what data they need, observations they must make, what the variables and controls will be and what equipment they will use.  Ms. V notes which questions each group of students is addressing.  Students keep detailed science notebooks throughout the unit.  Ms. V helps students to refine their procedures and repeat them to verify findings and develop scientific claims and conclusions.  Findings are discussed and alternative explanations are explored during class science meeting discussions.  At the conclusion of the testing, each group is responsible for typing a short report about their question and results.  The reports are turned into a podcast about electromagnets to share with their 2nd grade buddies.  Other units in Ms. V's curriculum are structured in a similar way and she directs students to investigate a variety of topics to ensure that students have an opportunity to learn all the required physical science content prior to the end of the year.

## Resources

Instructional Notes

Instructional suggestions/options:

• Students should have opportunities to work alone and in groups of 2-3.
• Have a plan for the management and distribution of materials.
• Activities should be open-ended; students should be allowed freedom to safely explore.
• Review safety guidelines when working with heat, magnets, and electricity.  See the Safety in the Elementary Science Classroom guidelines.
• Students should be encouraged to ask questions and "I Wonders.." and record their thinking.

Selected activities:

• Solar Ovens: Students examine solar oven designs.  Do an investigation on colors and heat absorption.  Using the engineering design process, construct solar ovens.  Using timers and temperatures, students investigate the temperatures the inside of their solar ovens reach as they cook a food item.  Students can collect temperature readings every 2 minutes for 16-20 minutes.  Make sure to have materials that allow all students to participate.  For example, if cooking S'mores, make sure to have gelatin and gelatin-free marshmallows.  Students can graph their temperature readings and share conclusions about solar oven designs and improvements to be made. (Benchmarks - 4.2.3.2.1, 4.2.3.1.1, 4.1.2.2.1, 4.1.2.2.3)

Source 1

Source 2

• Pathfinders: Students learn about complete and incomplete circuits by trying to light a bulb using various systems of bulbs, wires, and batteries and write instructions those others can follow.  Show students a battery, two wires, a bulb, and a battery holder.  Ask:  How can you make a complete electric circuit that will light a bulb?  Give each partner group a set of supplies.  Ask them in their science notebooks to record words or diagrams that show ways the bulb lights and ways did not light up.  Ask partner groups to meet with another group and share what they tested and found that worked and did not work.  Then as a class, share methods of the systems that worked. Ask: What are the similarities of the systems that work?  What are the similarities of the systems that do not work? (Benchmark - 4.2.3.2.2)

Source: Electrical connections. (2005). Fresno, CA: AIMS Education Foundation.

• Conductor or Insulator?: Students test a variety of materials to determine if they are conductors or insulators.  Review how to build a circuit to test the conductivity of materials using a D-cell battery, battery holder, wires, and a light bulb.  Five groups 5 objects to test.  Have them predict in their science notebooks whether or not the object will conduct electricity.  Have students test the objects and record the results.  Then, have students' pick five additional objects of their choice to test and repeat the process.  Discuss the results and have students, in partner groups, create a conductor or insulator Venn diagram. (Benchmark 4.2.3.1.3)

Source: Electrical connections. (2005). Fresno, CA: AIMS Education Foundation.

• Electromagnets: Students experiment with electromagnets by manipulating several variables.  Have students estimate and record the number of paper clips the electromagnet will hold.  Demonstrate how to construct an electromagnet and touch the electromagnet to a pile of paper clips.  Tell them to lift the electromagnet and count the number of paper clips hold.  Students should disconnect the battery to prevent drain, and record what happens.  Students then should brainstorm different variables they could investigation.  Possible questions would be: How does neatness affect the strength of the magnet?  How does changing the thickness of the wire change the magnet's strength?  How does changing the number of times the wire is wrapped around the bolt affect the holding ability of the magnet?  Students select a variable to test.  They predict before doing the activity and should keep records of their results in their science notebooks, including showing their results in graphs.  After a period of investigating, results should be shared with the class.  A culminating activity is to present an engineering design challenge.  Students design an electromagnet using any of the materials available to try to build the strongest possible electromagnet using knowledge about the different variables.

Source: Electrical connections. (2005). Fresno, CA: AIMS Education Foundation.

New Vocabulary

Vocabulary/Glossary

Conductor = a material that allows heat energy or electricity to pass through it easily

Current = A flow of charged particles through a conducting material or through space. These charged particles can be electrons, protons or ions.

Electric circuit = a pathway that electrons flow through

Electric current = a constant flow of electrons through a conductor

Electromagnet = a temporary magnet created by a flow of electric current around an iron bar

Electricity = a form of energy that is produced when electrons move from one place to another place.

Electron = a particle that is in the space around the nucleus of an atom and has a negative charge

Energy = the ability to do work

Heat Energy = the energy of moving particles in a substance

Insulator = a material that does not let heat energy or electricity pass through it easily

Magnetic Field = the area around a magnet where the force of magnetism can be felt

Work = done when a force moves an object through a distance

Source: ScienceSaurus: A student handbook. (2005). Wilmington, MA: Great Source

Education Group. Inc.

Technology Connections

Energy Flows:

Source

Cross Curricular Connections
• Social Studies: Discuss how the electric light has changed our daily life.  Read about how the light bulb was invented.  Read a biography of Thomas Edison.  What else did he invent?
• Math: Graph the results of the investigations.
• Health: Discuss the importance of insulators to health and safety.  Identify some of the places insulators are used in students' daily life.
• Reading: Divide the class into groups.  Give each group biography information on one person related to electricity/magnetism.  Have students read the factual information and create a short skit.
• Writing:  Have students imagine going through one day without using something invented or improved upon by Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Morse, or Thomas Edison.  Have them write a diary entry about the day.

Adapted from Source: Electrical connections. (2005). Fresno, CA: AIMS Education Foundation.

References

## Assessment

Students:

1.       What is an example of something you witnessed in the last week that demonstrated generating heat energy (consider what happened in your kitchen, backyard, etc.)? (Level - 2)

2.       What are some advantages of the electromagnet over the permanent magnet? (Level - 2)

1.       What might you do to increase the strength of an electromagnet? (Level - 2)

2.       What must happen in order for bulb to light up? (Level - 1)

3.       How can you make a bulb brighter? (Level - 1/2)

4.       What is the relationship between electricity and magnetism? (Level - 2)

Teachers: Questions could be used as self-reflection or in professional development sessions.

1.       What is an example of something you witnessed in the last week that demonstrated generating heat energy (consider what happened in your kitchen, backyard, etc.)? (Level - 2)

2.       What might you do to increase the strength of an electromagnet? (Level - 2)

3.       What is the relationship between electricity and magnetism? (Level - 2)

Administrators should expect to see students safely manipulating supplies.  Students      should be working in cooperative groups and activities should be open-ended to allow    opportunities for discovery.  Building with materials and getting things, such as an       electromagnet, to work can be a frustrating experience. There should be a classroom     atmosphere of patience, repeated tinkering, and positive, encouraging attitudes.

## Differentiation

Struggling Learners
• Provide clear, procedural steps - use charts, pictures, and outlines.
• Model laboratory activities - demonstrate activities in front of the class so students can see the procedures before engaging in an activity.
English Language Learners
• Introduce visually dynamic literature before you start a new unit
• Find simple tactile projects that build a framework before the start of a unit
• Set the student up with pre-selected Internet sites that bring the concept alive and offer reference points.
Extending the Learning

G/T:

• Create Quiz Boards: Have students use their knowledge of what makes a complete circuit to construct a quiz board and explain how the quiz board works.  A quiz board can look like an old-fashion phone switchboard.  Each question is connected to the correct answer by a strip of aluminum foil.  The aluminum foil is covered by masking tape to insulate it and prevent short circuits.  When a correct question and answer are chosen, it completes the circuit, causing the bulb to light.
• Flashlight: Make a working flashlight using a toilet paper tube, paper cups, aluminum foil, a flashlight bulb, and a D-cell battery.  The flashlight should have a switch.
• Other extensions include: exploring static electricity, making switches or circuit breakers, making a galvanometer or electric motor.

Source: Electrical connections. (2005). Fresno, CA: AIMS Education Foundation.

Multi-Cultural
• Use learning outcomes reflecting the objectives and bias-free assessments. The lessons must be aligned with the standards. Further, assessment of these students must be totally fair.
• Uphold educational equity. The lessons must take into consideration the entire composition of the students and are developed so that access is equitable for all students.
• Develop collaboration and empowerment in the entire learning community.
• Always think whether someone from the learning community was left out in this lesson. Could the lesson have been improved if the parents or other teachers were consulted in the process?
• Help increase the students' knowledge of various cultures, including their own. Discuss the cultural and/or historical background of the topic or show how the topic is used in the real world.  Are the students aware of other cultures after the lesson? Did the students relate the topic to their own group? Was there an effort to show familiar application of the science topics?
• Enable students' interest and ability to see and think with a multicultural perspective. Are students more appreciative of the diversity they are in? Do students see differences and diverseness as assets and not liabilities? Are students aware that there are other ways to learn ideas, to do ideas, and to present ideas?