4.2.3.1 Forms

Grade: 
4
Subject:
Science
Strand:
Physical Science
Substrand:
Energy
Standard 4.2.3.1

Energy appears in different forms, including heat and electromagnetism.

Benchmark: 4.2.3.1.1 Transfer of Heat Energy

Describe the transfer of heat energy when a warm and a cool object are touching or placed near each other.

Benchmark: 4.2.3.1.2 Forces from Magnets

Describe how magnets can repel or attract each other and how they attract certain metal objects.

Benchmark: 4.2.3.1.3 Conductors & Insulators

Compare materials that are conductors and insulators of heat and/or electricity.

For example: Glass conducts heat well, but is a poor conductor of electricity.

Overview

Standard in Lay Terms 

MN Standard in Lay Terms

Energy comes in many forms.  Energy can be transferred and transformed.

Big Ideas and Essential Understandings 

Big Idea

Energy can cause motion.  Energy can also cause changes in matter.

There are different forms of energy.  These forms are all around.

Energy can change from one form to another.

Energy cannot be created or destroyed.  The same amount of energy exists before and after it changes form.

Heat energy always moves from a warmer object or area to a cooler object or area.

Magnets attract objects made of iron and a few other materials.

All materials resist, or work against, the flow of electrons.  Some materials resist the flow of electrons more than other materials do.

Source: ScienceSaurus: A student handbook. (2005). Wilmington, MA: Great Source Education Group. Inc.

Benchmark Cluster 

MN Standard Benchmarks

4.2.3.1.1  Describe the transfer of heat energy when a warm and a cool object are touching or placed near each other.

4.2.3.1.2  Describe how magnets can repel or attract each other and how they attract certain metal objects.

4.2.3.1.3  Compare materials that are conductors and insulators of heat and/or electricity.  For example: Glass conducts heat well, but is a poor conductor of electricity.

The Essentials

Energy appears in different forms...

Source

Correlations 
  • NSES Standards:

CONTENT STANDARD B: As a result of the activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of

- Properties of objects and materials

- Position and motion of objects

- Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism

Source: NSES

  • AAAS Atlas:

Energy Transformations - Grades 3-5:

When warmer things are put with cooler ones, the warmer things get cooler and the cooler things get warmer until they all are the same temperature.

When warmer things are put with cooler ones, heat is transferred from the warmer ones to the cooler ones.

A warmer object can warm a cooler one by contact or at a distance.Source: Atlas strand map

Electricity and Magnetism - Grades 3-5:

Without touching them, an object that as been electrically charged pulls on all other charged objects and may either push or pull other charged objects.

Changes in speed or direction of motion are caused by forces.

Without touching them, a magnet pulls on all things made of iron and either pushes or pulls on other magnets.Atlas

  • Benchmarks of Science Literacy

The Scientific Worldview: By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that

  • Sometimes similar investigations give different results because of differences in the things being investigated, the methods used, or the circumstances in which the investigation is carried out, and sometimes just because of uncertainties in observations. It is not always easy to tell which. 1A/E1*
  • Science is a process of trying to figure out how the world works by making careful observations and trying to make sense of those observations. 1A/E2**

Source

Scientific Inquiry: By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that

  • Scientific investigations may take many different forms, including observing what things are like or what is happening somewhere, collecting specimens for analysis, and doing experiments. 1B/E1*
  • Because we expect science investigations that are done the same way to produce the same results, when they do not, it is important to try to figure out why. 1B/E2a*  
  • One reason for following directions carefully and for keeping records of one's work is to provide information on what might have caused differences in investigations. 1B/E2b
  • Scientists' explanations about what happens in the world come partly from what they observe, partly from what they think. 1B/E3a
  • Sometimes scientists have different explanations for the same set of observations. That usually leads to their making more observations to resolve the differences. 1B/E3bc
  • Scientists do not pay much attention to claims about how something they know about works unless the claims are backed up with evidence that can be confirmed, along with a logical argument. 1B/E4

Source

Scientific Enterprise: By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that

  • Science is an adventure that people everywhere can take part in, as they have for many centuries. 1C/E1
  • Clear communication is an essential part of doing science. It enables scientists to inform others about their work, expose their ideas to criticism by other scientists, and stay informed about scientific discoveries around the world. 1C/E2
  • Doing science involves many different kinds of work and engages men and women of all ages and backgrounds. 1C/E3
  • Many social practices and products of technology are shaped by scientific knowledge. 1C/E4**

Source

Energy Transformations: By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that

  • When two objects are rubbed against each other, they both get warmer. In addition, many mechanical and electrical devices get warmer when they are used. 4E/E1*
  • When warmer things are put with cooler ones, the warmer things get cooler and the cooler things get warmer until they all are the same temperature. 4E/E2a*
  • When warmer things are put with cooler ones, heat is transferred from the warmer ones to the cooler ones. 4E/E2b*
  • A warmer object can warm a cooler one by contact or at a distance. 4E/E2c

Source

Forces of Nature: By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that                        

  • The earth's gravity pulls any object on or near the earth toward it without touching it. 4G/E1*
  • Without touching them, a magnet pulls on all things made of iron and either pushes or pulls on other magnets. 4G/E2
  • Without touching them, an object that has been electrically charged pulls on all other uncharged objects and may either push or pull other charged objects. 4G/E3*

Source

Common Core Standards

Language Arts;

4.2.10.10   By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

a. Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks.

4.6.2.2.1 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

a.     Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

b.    Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.

c.     Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).

d.    Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

e.    Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information

4.6.10.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

a.   Independently select writing topics and formats for personal, enjoyment interest, and academic tasks.

4.8.1.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

a.    Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.

b.    Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.

c.    Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.

d.    Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.

Cooperate and problem solve as appropriate for productive group discussion.

4.8.6.6 Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 41-42 for specific expectations.)

4.10.4.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

a.   Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

b.   Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).

c.    Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

4.10.6.6 Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

Misconceptions

Student Misconceptions 
  • Students' ideas of heat have many wrinkles.  In some situations, cold is thought to be transferred rather than heat.  Some materials may be thought to be intrinsically warm (blankets) or cold (metals).  Objects that keep things warm-such as a sweater or mittens-may be thought to be sources of heat.  Only a continuing mix of experiment and discussion is likely to dispel these ideas.
  • Students need not come out of this grade span understanding heat or its difference from temperature.  In this spirit, there is little to be gained by having youngsters refer to heat as heat energy.  More important, students should become familiar with the warming of objects that start out cooler than their environment, and vice versa.  Computer labware probes and graphic displays that detect small changes in temperature and plot them can be used by students to examine many instances of heat exchange.  Because many students think of cold as a substance that spreads like heat, there may be some advantage in translating descriptions of transfer of cold into terms of transfer of heat.

Source

  • Electric and magnetic forces and the relationship between them ought also to be treated qualitatively.  Fields can be introduced, but only intuitively.  Most important is that students get a sense of electric and magnetic force fields (as well as of gravity) and of some simple relations between magnets and electric currents.  Direction rules have little importance for general literacy.  The priority should be on what conditions produce a magnetic field and what conditions induce an electric current.  Diagrams of electric and magnetic fields promote some misconceptions about "lines of force," notably that the force exists only on those lines.  Students should recognize that the lines are used only to show the direction of the field.

Source

  • Poles are not always at the "ends" of a magnet.  Even a round magnet has two poles.  They are on the two flat sides of the magnet.

Source: ScienceSaurus: A student handbook. (2005). Wilmington, MA: Great Source Education Group. Inc.

Vignette

Mr. Watt was starting an energy unit with his fourth graders.   When his students walked into the classroom on Monday morning, this question was written on the interactive whiteboard:  What is energy?  He handed out to the students small sheets of paper and asked them to write a definition for the word energy.  The students then crumpled the papers and tossed them across the room.  Each student picked up a new paper and read the anonymous energy definition.  Students were called on to share responses.  Behind the word energy on the interactive whiteboard was a scientific definition: The ability to do work.  Students recorded the definition in their science notebooks.  They then reviewed the main forms of energy (sound, thermal, electrical, nuclear, light, and chemical) and were given a table with the forms of energy on one side and a spot to record examples on the other side.  Mr. Watt took his class on a energy hunt around the school.  When a student spotted a type of energy, the class stopped and recorded the form of energy on their tables.  When Mr. Watt's students returned to their classroom, the activity concluded with a class discussion on the numerous real examples of energy appearing in different forms they found in the school! 

Source: (Kindem, 2011) Ideas adapted from Kolb, J., (2009). Hunting for energy. Science and Children, Dec., 42-44.

Resources

Instructional Notes 

Suggested Labs and Activities

Heat Transfer/Conductors & Insultators - 4.2.3.1.1 & 4.2.3.1.3

Passing the Heat Along Experiment A:

1) Pour hot water into a coffee mug.

2) Place a metal spoon in the hot water.

3) Place a plastic spoon in the hot water.

4) Use a timer to record the time that it takes each spoon to heat up.

5) Students will be able to determine which materials attract heat the fastest.

Passing the Heat Along Experiment B:

1) Fill the hot water bottle with hot, not boiling, water.

2) Place a piece of wood on the bottle and leave it their for 5 minutes.

3) Place your hand on top of the wood.  Record whether it feels "very warm", warm, or cool.

4) Repeat the same steps using materials such as, plastic, paper, cardboard, and cotton.

Passing the Heat Along Experiment C:

1) Get two glass jars with metal lids. Put a hole in the center of each lid.

2) Put hot water in each jar.

3) Push the thermometers through each hole in the jar lids.

4) Wrap jar "A" in aluminum foil and wait for 10 minutes.

5) Wrap jar "B" in in newspaper and wait for 10 minutes.

6) Record the temperatures of each jar and determine which materials help contain heat.

7) Repeat the experiment using different materials.

Experiment A-C Source

Testing the Pull of Magnets: Is the force of magnetism strong enough to travel through things? (4.2.3.1.2)

Draw a maze on a piece of cardboard.  Can you guide a paper-clip through the maze?Place the paperclip on the top of your cardboard with the maze facing up. Place the magnet under your cardboard where the paperclip is resting on top. Now move your magnet around and see what happens.

Can you rescue a paper-clip from a glass of water without getting wet? Fill you glass with water and drop the paper-clip inside the glass. Take the magnet and place it on the outside of the glass close to the magnet and see if you can pull the paper-clip to the side of the glass and up to the top (without getting wet).

Will the paper-clip climb the ruler?  (You can use a plastic or a wooden ruler).

Hold your ruler so that one end is resting on a flat surface and hold the other end              up at a angle. Place the magnet on the under side of the ruler (the end that it                resting on the flat surface) and then place the paperclip on the top of the ruler (again, the end of the ruler that is resting on the flat surface). Move the magnet to go up to the top end of the ruler.

Repelling and Attracting. Magnets behave in surprising ways when you put them together. Hold a needle by the eye and stroke it gently 30 times with your magnet, in the same direction.  Do the same with the second needle, making sure that you use the same end of the magnet. Test your needle-magnets on some pins before you use them for other experiments.  When working, place each needle on a pieces of paper and float them side by side in a bowl of water (with one point and one eye next to each other.

What happened to the needles? Next, place the needles so that both eyes are side by side.  What happened this time? (4.2.3.1.2) Source

Measuring Magnetic Force - How much, How far, and How thick? Students conduct three separate but related investigations.  First, they determine how many paperclips a magnet can hold and then add magnets to determine if the additional magnets alter the overall magnetic force in the system (How many paper clips will the magnet(s) hold?).  Second, they measure the distance that the magnetic force works through with one magnet.  They also measure the distance that a paper clip will move toward a magnet (What is the distance a magnet can move a paper clip?). Lastly, students investigate the ability of a magnet to work through various materials, such as paper, wood, glass, and metal (Which materials will a magnet attract a paper clip through?)  (4.2.3.1.2)

Source: Beaver, J. B. & Powers, D. (2003). Electricity and Magnetism. Quincy, IL: Mark Twain Media, Inc.

Conductors & Insulators. Create a closed electrical circuits that will light a light bulb.  Then, test objects (paper clip, string, plastic ruler, tab form a pop can, rubber band, crayon, potato, etc.) in the circuit to determine if they are conductors or insulators of electricity.  Record how you were able to determine whether each object you tested was a conductor or an insulator.  (4.2.3.1.3)

Source: Sinsel, J. L. (2006). Skill-Building Science. Greensboro, NC: Carson-Dellosa Publishing Company, Inc.

Fast Food Frenzy. Task: Design an experiment to determine which type of insulting material used in fast-food containers retains heat for the longest amount of time.  Think about what you already know about the types of materials from which fast food containers are made.  Research how the materials are crated and how they work as insulators.  What will you test?  What will change?  Which parts of the experiment must stay the same?  To which trail will you compare all of the results?  Create a graph that shows a picture of the data collected in this experiment. (4.2.3.1.3)

Source: Sinsel, J. L. (2006). Skill-Building Science. Greensboro, NC: Carson-Dellosa Publishing Company, Inc.

Instructional suggestions/options

Energy is a major exception to the principle that students should understand an idea before giving them a label for it.  Because energy is such a mysterious concept, children can actually benefit from hearing the term and talking about it before being able to define it.  Developing a formal conception of energy and energy-related concepts should wait until students are ready.

Elementary students should have multiple experiences putting warmer and cooler things together, measuring the temperature, and describing the result.  It is not until middle school that students begin to describe and draw a particulate model to explain what happens.

In upper elementary grades, students can investigate warm and cold objects, observing how heat seems to spread from one area to another.  Starting with objects that are warmer than their immediate environment to investigate heat transfer may make more sense than starting with objects that are colder than their surrounding environment.

Source: Keeley, P., Eberle, F., & Tugel, J. (2007). Uncovering students ideas in science: 25 more formative assessment probes. Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association.

Investing much time and effort in developing formal energy concepts can wait. The importance of energy, after all, is that it is a useful idea. It helps make sense out of a very large number of things that go on in the physical and biological and engineering worlds. But until students have reached a certain point in their understanding of bits and pieces of the world, they gain little by having such a tool. It is a matter of timing.

The one aspect of the energy story in which students of this age can make some headway is heat, which is produced almost everywhere. In their science and technology activities during these years, students should be alerted to look for things and processes that give off heat-lights, radios, television sets, the sun, sawing wood, polishing surfaces, bending things, running motors, people, animals, etc.-and then for those that seem not to give off heat. Also, the time is appropriate to explore how heat spreads from one place to another and what can be done to contain it or shield things from it.

Source

The main notion to convey here is that forces can act at a distance. Students should carry out investigations to become familiar with the pushes and pulls of magnets and static electricity. The term gravity may interfere with students' understanding because it often is used as an empty label for the common (and ancient) notion of "natural motion" toward the earth. The important point is that the earth pulls on objects.

Source

Instructional Resources 

Forms of Energy: On this site there is information on the types of energy.

Magnetic Man: This web site is devoted to magnetism and the cool experiments students can do with permanent magnets and electro-magnets.

Make a compass

Energy Education site with information, games, and teacher resources

New Vocabulary 

Vocabulary/Glossary

Attract = pull toward

Conductors = materials that allow heat energy/electricity to pass through them easily (ex. iron, copper, aluminum)

Current = A flow of charged particles through a conducting material or through space. These charged particles can be electrons, protons or ions.

Electricity = a form of energy that is produced when electrons move from one place to another place.

Electric circuit = a pathway that electrons flow through

Energy = the ability to do work

Energy Forms:

Heat Energy = the energy of moving particles in a substance

Light Energy = a form of energy that travels in waves and can move through empty space where there is no air

Sound Energy = a form of energy produced by vibrating objects

Chemical Energy = Energy stored in a substance and released during a chemical reaction such as burning wood, coal, or oil.

Nuclear Energy = Energy that comes from splitting atoms of radioactive materials, such as uranium.

Mechanical Energy = The energy of motion used to perform work.

Force = a push or pull

Insulators = materials that do not allow heat energy/electricity to move through them easily (ex. wood and plastic)

Magnetic field = A condition in the space surrounding some objects that causes charged or metallic bodies brought close by to experience the force of magnetism.

Repel = push away

Temperature = the average speed of the particles in a substance

Work = done when a force moves an object through a distance

This source and ScienceSaurus: A student handbook. (2005). Wilmington, MA: Great Source Education Group. Inc.

Cross Curricular Connections 
  • Music: Sing sounds related to the concepts.  For example, Magnets Rock!

(to the tune of "Skip to my Lou")

M-A-G-N-E-T-S

M-A-G-N-E-T-S

Chorus M-A-G-N-E-T-S

Magnets really rock!

Magnets attract iron and steel

Magnets attract iron and steel

Magnets attract iron and steel

Magnets really rock!

M-A-G-N-E-T-S

M-A-G-N-E-T-S

Chorus M-A-G-N-E-T-S

Magnets really rock!

Magnets have north and south poles

Magnets have north and south poles

Magnets have north and south poles

Magnets really rock!

Source

  • Writing: Possible writing projects include - a story from the perspective of a magnet or a persuasive letter for the use of a conductor or insulator for packaging a product.

Assessment

Assessment of Students

Imagine you are riding in a car on a long trip through Texas in July.  During the long ride you spend time coloring and drawing pictures.  You leave your crayons on the car seat when you stop to eat lunch.  What do you think you will find when you return to the car after lunch? Why? (Level - 2)

Source: Martin, R., Sexton, C. Franklin, T., & Gerlovich, J. (2005). Teaching science for all children: An inquiry approach. New York: Pearson Education, Inc.

2. Of the objects that you classified as insulators, what are several physical characteristics that they have in common?  (Level - 2)

1.       Which of the following does not describe the magnetic force between two magnets? (Level -1)

a.       The like poles attract.

b.       The like poles repel.

c.        It decreases as the magnets move apart.

d.       The unlike poles attract.

2.       If a magnet is cut, how many poles will each half have? (Level - 1)

a.       One

b.       Two

c.        Three

d.       Four

Answer (B. 2 - if a magnet is cut into pieces, each new part would have both a north and a south pole)

3.       When might you see the influence of a magnetic field? (Level - 2)

4.       How are you able to determine whether an object you test is a conductor or an insulator? (Level - 2)

Assessment of Teachers

Questions could be used as self-reflection or in professional development sessions.

1.       Imagine you are riding in a bus on a summer school field trip through Texas in July.  During the ride students spend time coloring and drawing pictures.  Students leave their crayons on the bus seats during the field trip.  What do you think you and the students will find when you return to the bus? Why? (Level - 2)

Adapted from Source: Martin, R., Sexton, C. Franklin, T., & Gerlovich, J. (2005). Teaching science for all children: An inquiry approach. New York: Pearson Education, Inc.

2.       What appears to be the strongest part of a magnet? (Level - ½)

3.       How are you able to determine whether an object you test is a conductor or an insulator? (Level - 2)

Differentiation

Struggling Learners 

Struggling and At-Risk

Provide clear, procedural steps - use charts, pictures, and outlines.

Model laboratory activities - demonstrate activities in front of the class so students can see the procedures before engaging in an activity.

Source

English Language Learners 

Give students exposure to the topic before the lesson. For example with heat energy: Fill one zipper-type plastic bag with warm water and one with cold water. Place a thermometer in each bag and note the temperature. Put both bags together so that they are touching each other. Ask students to predict any temperature changes that may occur in this system in which the hot and cold water interact, but do not mix. Use student thoughts to identify misconceptions prior to the next lab.

Extending the Learning 

Students can research magnetism in space. 

Students can conduct extension experiments with magnetic levitation - such as floating paper clips and levitating trains

Students can develop and create magnet games.  For example: At the bottom of a canyon, there is a big pile of gold bars that has been abandoned by some robbers.  How many do you think you can rescue?  How to play:  you will need to cut out 12 small rectangles of gold-coloured card, attach a paper-clip to each of the gold bars, put them in an empty tissue box or shoe box.  Each player will need a pencil or a stick with a piece of string tied around the pencil or stick.  Tie the other end of the string around a magnet. The one who picks up the most gold bars with their fishing magnet is the winner! 

Source

Have students see if they can determine whether or not a magnet field is three-dimensional?  Does the field extend above and below the magnet, as well as around it?

Multi-Cultural 
  • Use learning outcomes reflecting the objectives and bias-free assessments. The lessons must be aligned with the standards. Further, assessment of these students must be totally fair.
  • Uphold educational equity. The lessons must take into consideration the entire composition of the students and are developed so that access is equitable for all students.
  • Develop collaboration and empowerment in the entire learning community.
    Always think whether someone from the learning community was left out in this lesson. Could the lesson have been improved if the parents or other teachers were consulted in the process?
  • Help increase the students' knowledge of various cultures, including their own. Discuss the cultural and/or historical background of the topic or show how the topic is used in the real world.  Are the students aware of other cultures after the lesson? Did the students relate the topic to their own group? Was there an effort to show familiar application of the science topics?
  • Enable students' interest and ability to see and think with a multicultural perspective. Are students more appreciative of the diversity they are in? Do students see differences and diverseness as assets and not liabilities? Are students aware that there are other ways to learn ideas, to do ideas, and to present ideas?

Adapted from this source

Special Education 

Give students exposure to the topic before the lesson (ex. allow for exploration of magnets).

Working in pairs to test and record observations helps students understand the concepts.

Parents/Admin

Classroom Observation 

Administrators

An administrator should see the basic science process skills in action.  For example, students should be classifying objects (using a magnet to sort a set of objects according to their magnetic properties).  The teacher should be monitoring the manipulation of materials by students to ensure they are handling and treating materials and equipment skillfully and effectively.  An administrator should also see the development of vocabulary.  Specialized terminology and unique uses of common words in relation to this topic need to be given meaning and used appropriately.  Experimentation, making decisions, and communicating (orally and in writing) should be a main student focus.  Students should be given hands-on opportunities to design, build, and test with their classmates.

Adapted from: Beaver, J. B. & Powers, D. (2003). Electricity and Magnetism. Quincy, IL:  Mark Twain Media, Inc.

Parents 

Eye-eye, Popeye! Seeing Iron in Food: Many foods contain iron, which blood cells need in order to carry oxygen. In this activity you will use a magnet to separate the iron contained in some iron-rich foods.  Source

Magnetic Pick-up

        

         Source

Magnets Help Us at Home: Look for things at home that have magnets.

Draw pictures of them and write their names. Possibilities include refrigerator magnets, cupboard latches, electric can openers, and the tips of some screwdrivers.